REFLECTIONS ON THE CHAPTERS OF THE DAYBREAK [113] AND MANKIND [114]


REFLECTIONS ON THE CHAPTERS OF THE DAYBREAK [113] AND MANKIND [114]


In the Name of God, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful.

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

“Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the dawn,” [113:1]


مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

From the evil of created things;” [113:2]


وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

“And from the evil of the dark night when it comes,” [113:3]


وَمِن شَرِّ النَّفَّاثَاتِ فِي الْعُقَدِ

“And from the evil of those who blow on knots (practice Secret Arts),” [113:4]

وَمِن شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ

“And from the evil of the envious (one) when he envies.” [113:5]


قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ

“Say: I take refuge with the Lord of Mankind,” [114:1]


مَلِكِ النَّاسِ

“The King of Mankind,” [114:2]


إِلَهِ النَّاسِ

“The God of Mankind,” [114:3]


مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ

“From the evil of the slinking whisperer,” [114:4]


الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ

Who whispers evil into the hearts of Mankind,” [114:5]


مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَ النَّاسِ

“From among Jinn and Mankind.” [114:6]


Some commentators believe that this Surah is Meccan while some others know it to be Medinan. The Surah contains some divine teaching commands to the Holy Prophet (S), in particular, and to all Muslims, in general, to seek refuge in God from every kind of ill arising from outer nature, dark and evil plotting and envy on the part of others.

On the occasion of revelation of this Surah, there are some narrations cited in most of the commentary books to the effect that the holy Prophet (S) was affected by some magic incantations, practiced by a few Jews, and became sick. Gabriel came down and indicated the place of the magic paraphernalia, which were hidden at the bottom of a well, by the Jews. They were taken out of the well and then, these verses were recited and the physical condition of the Prophet (S) improved.

But, the late Tabarsi and some other researchers reject these kind of narrations whose reference is limited to only Ibn Abbas and ‘Aisha, because:

Firstly, the Surah is popularly known as Meccan, and the tone of the verses are also similar to Meccan Suras, while the problems which the Holy Prophet (S) had, with the Jews, occurred mostly in Medina, which is, itself, a testimony that these kinds of narrations are not correct.

Secondly, if the Holy Prophet (S) could, so easily, be affected by the witchcraft of sorcerers, so much so, that he became sick and stayed in bed, it would have, also, been easy to stop him from reaching his great goal. Surely the Providence, Who had sent him for such a great and important mission, the Prophecy, protected him against the witchcraft of sorcerers.

Thirdly, if sorcery is to have had an effect on the body of the Holy Prophet (S), then, people might imagine that witchcraft could affect his holy soul, too, and his thoughts would be subject to the witchcraft of sorcerers, so, this idea would destroy the principle of confidence in the Holy Prophet (S).


The Holy Qur’an opposes the idea that the Prophet (S) was bewitched:

اَوۡ يُلۡقٰٓى اِلَيۡهِ كَنۡزٌ اَوۡ تَكُوۡنُ لَهٗ جَنَّةٌ يَّاۡكُلُ مِنۡهَا ؕ وَقَالَ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ اِنۡ تَتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا رَجُلًا مَّسۡحُوۡرًا‏

اُنْظُرۡ كَيۡفَ ضَرَبُوۡا لَـكَ الۡاَمۡثَالَ فَضَلُّوۡا فَلَا يَسۡتَطِيۡعُوۡنَ سَبِيۡلاً

“Or (why) has not a treasure been bestowed on him, or why has he (not) a garden for enjoyment? The wicked say: ‘Ye follow none other than a man bewitched‘”.

“See what kind of comparisons they make for thee [Oh Muhammed]! But they have gone astray, and never a way will they be able to find!”.

[Surah Furqan, No. 25, verse 8-9]

Here, ‘bewitched’, whether mentally or bodily, is a witness to our objective point. However, with these very doubtful narrations, in regard to understanding the meaning of the verses, the sanctity of the position of the Prophet (S) cannot be questioned.


OCCASION OF REVELATION

The general, main and common view of the Shia Islamic School of thought is that the Holy Prophet (S) was never bewitched.


Sunnism has an opposite opinion :


Narrated Aisha:

Magic was worked on Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) so that he used to think that he had sexual relations with his wives while he actually had not (Sufyan said: That is the hardest kind of magic as it has such an effect). Then one day he said, “O `Aisha do you know that Allah has instructed me concerning the matter I asked Him about? Two men came to me and one of them sat near my head and the other sat near my feet. The one near my head asked the other. What is wrong with this man?’ The latter replied the is under the effect of magic The first one asked, Who has worked magic on him?’ The other replied Labid bin Al-A’sam, a man from Bani Zuraiq who was an ally of the Jews and was a hypocrite.’ The first one asked, What material did he use)?’ The other replied, ‘A comb and the hair stuck to it.’ The first one asked, ‘Where (is that)?’ The other replied. ‘In a skin of pollen of a male date palm tree kept under a stone in the well of Dharwan’ ” So the Prophet (ﷺ) went to that well and took out those things and said “That was the well which was shown to me (in a dream) Its water looked like the infusion of Henna leaves and its date-palm trees looked like the heads of devils.” The Prophet (ﷺ) added, “Then that thing was taken out’ I said (to the Prophet (ﷺ) ) “Why do you not treat yourself with Nashra?” He said, “Allah has cured me; I dislike to let evil spread among my people.”

[Sahih al-Bukhari 5765, Book 76, Hadith 79, English Reference : Vol. 7, Book 71, Hadith 660]


And :

The commentators of the Qur’an said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, had a Jewish servant boy. The Jews approached him and kept after him until he gave them some fallen hair from the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, as well as a few teeth from his comb. The Jews used these to cast a spell of black magic on him. The person who was behind this was the Jew Labid ibn al-A’sam. He then put the hair in a well belonging to Banu Zurayq called Dharwan. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, fell ill for a period of six month, during which the hair of his head fell off; he imagined that he slept with his wives when he did not, and was withering away without knowing the reason. As he was one day sleeping, he saw two angels coming to him. One of them sat at his head and the other at his feet. The angel who sat at his head asked: ‘What is wrong with the man?’ The second angel responded: ‘A spell of black magic was cast on him’. The first one asked: ‘And who is responsible for this sorcery?’ The second angel answered: ‘It is Labid ibn al- A’sam, the Jew’. The first angel asked again: ‘What did he use to cast black magic on him?’ The second angel said: ‘He used a comb and fallen hair’. The first angel asked: ‘Where is it now?’ The second angel said: ‘It is inside the spadix of a palm tree beneath the stepping stone which is inside the well of Dharwan’, at which point the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, woke up. He said: ‘O ‘A’ishah, do you not think that this is from Allah to inform me of the cause of my illness?’ He then sent ‘Ali [ibn Abi Talib], al-Zubayr [ibn al-‘Awwam] and ‘Ammar [ibn Yasir] who drained the water of that well as one would drain the dust of henna. They lifted the stone and got the spadix out and found therein some of the hair of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, as well a few teeth from his comb. They also found with it a string with eleven knots knitted with needles. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed Surah al- Falaq and Surah al-Nas (al-Mu’awwidhatayn). With each verse that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, read one knot was untied and the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, felt some lightness. When the last knot was untied, the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, got up as if he was released from a cord to which he was tied up. Gabriel, peace be upon him, kept saying: ‘In the name of Allah I cast this incantation on you to protect you from anything that might harm you and that Allah heals you from the resentful envier and the evil eye’. Those around him said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, should we not head toward that evil person and kill him?’ He said: ‘As for me, Allah has cured me, and I dislike causing evil to other people’. This is of the forbearance of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace”. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Ja’far informed us> Abu ‘Amr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al- Hiri> Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Mawsili> Mujahid ibn Musa> Abu Usamah> Hisham ibn ‘Urwa> his father> ‘A’ishah, may Allah be well pleased with her, who said: “A spell of black magic was cast on the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, such that he used to imagine that he did things when he did not. He was at my place, one day, and he began imploring Allah in earnest. Then he said: ‘Did you not feel, O ‘A’ishah, that Allah has answered me about that which I have enquired?’ I said: ‘And what is that, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said: ‘Two angels came to me…’, and he mentioned the whole story”. The whole story is narrated by Bukhari from ‘Ubayd ibn Isma’il from Abu Usamah. The same narration has different channels of transmission in both the authentic collections of Bukhari and Muslim. The book Asbab Nuzul al-Qur’an concludes here, and praise be to Allah, the One, the Munificent, and may Allah bless our master Muhammad, his household and all those who follow them in excellence.

[Asbab An-Nuzul, By Ali Ibn Ahmad Al-Wahidi, The Chapter of Al-Mu’awidhatayn]


And :

Narrated `Aisha:

The Prophet (ﷺ) continued for such-and-such period imagining that he has slept (had sexual relations) with his wives, and in fact he did not. One day he said, to me, “O `Aisha! Allah has instructed me regarding a matter about which I had asked Him. There came to me two men, one of them sat near my feet and the other near my head. The one near my feet, asked the one near my head (pointing at me), ‘What is wrong with this man? The latter replied, ‘He is under the effect of magic.’ The first one asked, ‘Who had worked magic on him?’ The other replied, ‘Lubaid bin Asam.’ The first one asked, ‘What material (did he use)?’ The other replied, ‘The skin of the pollen of a male date tree with a comb and the hair stuck to it, kept under a stone in the well of Dharwan.”‘ Then the Prophet (ﷺ) went to that well and said, “This is the same well which was shown to me in the dream. The tops of its date-palm trees look like the heads of the devils, and its water looks like the Henna infusion.” Then the Prophet (ﷺ) ordered that those things be taken out. I said, “O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! Won’t you disclose (the magic object)?” The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Allah has cured me and I hate to circulate the evil among the people.” `Aisha added, “(The magician) Lubaid bin Asam was a man from Bani Zuraiq, an ally of the Jews.” 

[ Sahih al-Bukhari 6063, Book 78, Hadith 93, English reference : Vol. 8, Book 73, Hadith 89 ]


I have found six hadiths in Bukhari that clearly say that Magic worked on the Holy Prophet (God forbid) :

  1. Sahih al-Bukhari 5765
  2. Sahih al-Bukhari 3268
  3. Sahih al-Bukhari 5763
  4. Sahih al-Bukhari 5766
  5. Sahih al-Bukhari 6063
  6. Sahih al-Bukhari 6391

The thing is not that such fabricated Hadiths exist or not in the Hadith Books. Within the Shia Islāmic world you will also find such Hadiths, for example in Tafsir Furat Al-Kufi, that the Prophet (S) was affected by Magic, BUT Shia Islam does not accept such Hadiths, because such Hadiths oppose the Qur’an and the intellect.

Just think about it, that our beloved Prophet (S) was influenced by Magic. That in itself automatically means that our beloved Prophet (S) was influenced by the devil, because a man who is influenced by magic is automatically influenced by Satan’s influences. We see it clearly in the Qur’anic verses that Satan does not have any authority of the servants of God such as the true believers, let alone the best creation : Prophet Muhammed (S).

So we Shia Muslims hold the principle and the belief that Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-Nas were revealed to train Muslims to seek refuge in God in every single situation.


BUKHARI WANTS TO CONCEAL FACTS ABOUT ABDULLAH IBN MAS’OOD 


حدثنا الحميدي، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَةُ بْنُ أَبِي لُبَابَةَ، عَنْ زِرِّ بْنِ حُبَيْشٍ، وَحَدَّثَنَا عَاصِمٌ، عَنْ زِرٍّ، قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أُبَىَّ بْنَ كَعْبٍ [عن المعوذتين] فقُلْتُ يَا أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ إِنَّ أَخَاكَ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ [يحكهما من المصحف]فَقَالَ أُبَىٌّ سَأَلْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ لِي قِيلَ لِي‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ، قَالَ فَنَحْنُ نَقُولُ كَمَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.

Narrated Zirr bin Hubaish: I asked Ubai bin Ka`b concerning Mu’awwidhatayn (Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-Nas), “O Abu AlMundhir! Your brother, Ibn Mas`ud is Removing (Scraping off) the two Mu’awwidhatayn Surah Al-Falaq And Surah An-Nas from the Qur’an.” Ubai said, “I asked Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) about them, and he said, ‘They have been revealed to me, and I have recited them (as a part of the Qur’an),” So Ubai added, “So we say as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) has said.”

[ Musnad Al-Humaydi The Teacher of Bukhari [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Humaydi ], Volume.1, Page 367 ]


Same Hadith with the same chain :

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَةُ بْنُ أَبِي لُبَابَةَ، عَنْ زِرِّ بْنِ حُبَيْشٍ، وَحَدَّثَنَا عَاصِمٌ، عَنْ زِرٍّ، قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أُبَىَّ بْنَ كَعْبٍ [ ] قُلْتُ يَا أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ إِنَّ أَخَاكَ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ [يَقُولُ كَذَا وَكَذَا‏.] فَقَالَ أُبَىٌّ سَأَلْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ لِي قِيلَ لِي‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ، قَالَ فَنَحْنُ نَقُولُ كَمَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.

Narrated Zirr bin Hubaish: I asked Ubai bin Ka`b [ ] , “O Abu AlMundhir! Your brother, Ibn Mas`ud said [so-and-so]. Ubai said, “I asked Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) about them, and he said, ‘They have been revealed to me, and I have recited them (as a part of the Qur’an),” So Ubai added, “So we say as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) has said.”

[ Sahih Al-Bukhari, : English reference : Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 501, Arabic reference : Book 65, Hadith 4977 ]


Imam Al-Humaydi was Imam Al-Bukhari’s teacher and Shaykh. We see that both narrate the same hadith that Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood does not consider Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-nas to be part of the Mushaf of the Holy Qur’an (The book of the Qur’an). We see that Imam Al-Humaydi has narrated it without playing with the hadith and without deleting or adding :

حدثنا الحميدي، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَةُ بْنُ أَبِي لُبَابَةَ، عَنْ زِرِّ بْنِ حُبَيْشٍ، وَحَدَّثَنَا عَاصِمٌ، عَنْ زِرٍّ، قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أُبَىَّ بْنَ كَعْبٍ –>[عن المعوذتين] <– فقُلْتُ يَا أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ إِنَّ أَخَاكَ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ –>[يحكهما من المصحف]<– فَقَالَ أُبَىٌّ سَأَلْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ لِي قِيلَ لِي‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ، قَالَ فَنَحْنُ نَقُولُ كَمَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.

Narrated Zirr bin Hubaish: I asked Ubai bin Ka`b concerning Al-Mu’awwidhatayn (Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-Nas), “O Abu AlMundhir! Your brother, Ibn Mas`ud is Removing (Scraping off) the two Mu’awwidhatayn Surah Al-Falaq And Surah An-Nas from the Qur’an.” Ubai said, “I asked Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) about them, and he said, ‘They have been revealed to me, and I have recited them (as a part of the Qur’an),” So Ubai added, “So we say as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) has said.”

[ Musnad Al-Humaydi The Teacher of Bukhari [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Humaydi ], Volume.1, Page 367 ]


Look what Imam Al-Bukhari did and how he played with the Hadith :

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَةُ بْنُ أَبِي لُبَابَةَ، عَنْ زِرِّ بْنِ حُبَيْشٍ، وَحَدَّثَنَا عَاصِمٌ، عَنْ زِرٍّ، قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أُبَىَّ بْنَ كَعْبٍ –>[ ]<– قُلْتُ يَا أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ إِنَّ أَخَاكَ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ –>[يَقُولُ كَذَا وَكَذَا‏.]<– فَقَالَ أُبَىٌّ سَأَلْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ لِي قِيلَ لِي‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ، قَالَ فَنَحْنُ نَقُولُ كَمَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.

Narrated Zirr bin Hubaish: I asked Ubai bin Ka`b –> [ ] <– , “O Abu AlMundhir! Your brother, Ibn Mas`ud said –>[so-and-so].<– Ubai said, “I asked Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) about them, and he said, ‘They have been revealed to me, and I have recited them (as a part of the Qur’an),” So Ubai added, “So we say as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) has said.”

  1. Here wee see that Imam Al-Bukhari has removed Narrated Zirr bin Hubaish: I asked . Ubai bin Ka`b –> [ ] <– : ” Concerning Al-Mu’awwidhatayn ” : –>[عن المعوذتين] <–
  2. Secondly instead of narrating it as it is : “ Narrated Zirr bin Hubaish: I asked Ubai bin Ka`b concerning Al-Mu’awwidhatayn (Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-Nas), “O Abu AlMundhir! Your brother, Ibn Mas`ud is Removing (Scraping off) the two Mu’awwidhatayn Surah Al-Falaq And Surah An-Nas from the Qur’an.” : –> إِنَّ أَخَاكَ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ –> [يحكهما من المصحف]‏

    –> إِنَّ أَخَاكَ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ –> [يحكهما من المصحف]

Imam Al Bukhari has written : “O Abu AlMundhir! Your brother, Ibn Mas`ud said –>[so-and-so].<– : –>[قُلْتُ يَا أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ إِنَّ أَخَاكَ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ–>[يَقُولُ كَذَا وَكَذَا‏

Bukhari, I have one question for you : What do you mean by “So and So” While your teacher has narrated it like this :

Your brother, Ibn Mas`ud is Removing (Scraping off) the two Mu’awwidhatayn Surah Al-Falaq And Surah An-Nas from the Qur’an.”

–> إِنَّ أَخَاكَ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ –> [يحكهما من المصحف]


[ Musnad Al-Humaydi The Teacher of Bukhari [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Humaydi ], Volume.1, Page 367 ]

[ Sahih Al-Bukhari, : English reference : Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 501, Arabic reference : Book 65, Hadith 4977 ]


We also find it in Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal : Reports from Aasim and Zirr: Aasim narrates from Zirr, he told Ubayy that Ibn Mas’ud did not write al-mu’awwazatayn in his mushaf. (Musnad Ahmad, No. 21186)

Abdah and Aasim narrate from Zirr, he said; “I told Ubayy, ‘your brother Ibn Mas’ud erases them (surah 113 & 114) from his mushaf,’ and he did not object.” (Musnad Ahmad, No. 21189)

Why do you think scholars like Bukhari wanted to hide this reality? Bukhari is not the only one, Imam An-Nawawi also wanted to highlight the false fact that Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood didn’t believed in Tahrif Al-Qur’an: The distortion of The Holy Qur’an:


Al-Nawawi (d. 676 A.H.) said: “The Ummah has agreed that al-mu’awwazatayn and al-fatiha are part of the Qur’an and whoever denies this becomes a disbeliever. And whatever is quoted from Ibn Masud in this regard is not true.” (Al-Ittiqan 1/270)

Now that I have proven that Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood in Sahih Al-Bukhari removed Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-Nas and that Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood strongly believed in this distortion, Otherwise, Bukhari would not have written “So and So”, and Bukhari had not changed the hadith that is to be found in his teacher’s Musnad: Imam Al-Humaydi.

And here we see that An-Nawawi says that within the Ahlu-Sunnah Wa Al-Jama’a, it is a consensus that the one who believes that the Qur’an has been changed is a “Kafir” = “A Disbeliever”. An-Nawawi declares himself as a kafir and Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood as a kafir, because An-Nawawi lies to himself that Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood did not believe in this while the hadith is in Bukhari, and Bukhari has played with the hadith that comes from his teacher’s Musnad Al-Humaydi.

And the one who denies Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim’s authenticity within Ahlu-Sunnah wa Al-Jama’a is also a kafir, so An-Nawawi declares himself as a kafir and other Sunni scholars declare themselves as kuffar because they reject the fact that the hadith exists in Bukhari, the most important book after the Holy Qur’an in Sunnism, and denies the hadith in Bukhari and that Bukhari himself has played with, and that he does takfir on Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood who believed in the Tahrif (Distortion of the Holy Qur’an). This happens with the Ummah when you deny the last testament of the Holy Prophet Muhammed (S) : “I leave behind me two weighty things: The Qur’an and My Ahlulbayt (A)”.


The Virtue of Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-Nas

حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ، عَنِ الْمِنْهَالِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُعَوِّذُ الْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَيْنَ وَيَقُولُ ‏ “‏ إِنَّ أَبَاكُمَا كَانَ يُعَوِّذُ بِهَا إِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ، أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّةِ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْطَانٍ وَهَامَّةٍ، وَمِنْ كُلِّ عَيْنٍ لاَمَّةٍ ‏”‏‏.‏

Narrated Ibn `Abbas:

The Prophet (ﷺ) used to seek Refuge with Allah for Al-Hasan and Al-Husain and say: “Your forefather (i.e. Abraham) used to seek Refuge with Allah for Ishmael and Isaac by reciting the following: ‘O Allah! I seek Refuge with Your Perfect Words from every devil and from poisonous pests and from every evil, harmful, envious eye.’ “

[Sahih al-Bukhari 337, Book 60, Hadith 50, Vol. 4, Book 55, Hadith 590]


I’d rather have accepted this hadith of Hassan and Hussein (AS), than those false hadiths that said that the Prophet (S) were bewitched and affected by Magic!


On the virtue of this Surah, the Holy Prophet (S) is narrated to have said:

“Some verses have been revealed to me, the likes of which have not been revealed before; Surah Falaq and Surah Nas”. [Nur-uth-Thaqalayn]


Another tradition from Imam Baqir (as) denotes:

“He who recites Suras Falaq, Nas, and Ikhlas, in his ‘Witr (odd number rak’at) prayer’, will be told, ‘O servant of God, be happy that God has accepted your ‘Witr prayer’ “. [Nur-uth-Thaqalayn]


Another narration says that the holy Prophet (S) asked one of his companions whether or not he wished to be taught two Suras which were the best Suras of the Qur’an and he answered:

“Yes, O Messenger of God”; then, the Prophet (S) taught him Surah Al-Falaq and Nas, then, he (S) recited both of them in the morning prayer and told the man: “Read them whenever you get up and whenever you go to bed.” [Nur-uth-Thaqalayn]


It is clear that these virtues are for the person who harmonizes his own soul, mind, belief and actions with the content of the Two Surahs.

REFLECTION, PART.1

In the first verse of the Surah, the holy Prophet (S), himself, as a model and leader, is addressed and the command is:

“Say: I take refuge with the Lord of the dawn,”

“From the evil of what He has created,”

We should seek refuge In God from the evil of all wicked creatures, wicked men, jinn, animals and evil happenings; and from the evil of the ‘carnal soul’.

The term “falaq” (الْفَلَقِ) is based on “Falq” (فَلَق), which originally means ‘to split, to separate some from others, daybreak’; and since at the time of the appearance of daylight the black curtain of night breaks open, this word is used with the meaning of ‘daybreak’, as well as, “fajr” which is used for the ‘break of dawn’.

Some know the word with the meaning of ‘the creation of all living creatures’ which includes men, animals and plants, because they come forth from splitting seeds, eggs, and the like, which is the most surprising stage of their existence. In fact, when it comes forth, a great change happens in that being and it transfers from one world to another.


Surah Al-An’am, verse 95 says:

اِنَّ اللّٰهَ فَالِقُ الۡحَبِّ وَالنَّوٰىؕ يُخۡرِجُ الۡحَىَّ مِنَ الۡمَيِّتِ وَمُخۡرِجُ الۡمَيِّتِ مِنَ الۡحَىِّ ؕ ذٰ لِكُمُ اللّٰهُ فَاَنّٰى تُؤۡفَكُوۡنَ

“It is God Who causeth the seed-grain and the date-stone to split and sprout. He causeth the living to issue from the dead, and He is the One to cause the dead to issue from the living. That is God ; then how are ye deluded away from the truth?”


Some have considered a broader meaning for “falaq” than what was said above. They think that its meaning covers any creation, in general, because it is by the creation of every being that the curtain of nothingness breaks and the light of existence appears.

Each of these three ideas is a surprising phenomenon which is an evidence for the greatness of Allah, its Creator. That God is qualified with this attribute conveys an intensely profound content and a wide ranging concept.

Some Islāmic narrations denote that “Falaq” is a well or a prison in Hell which appears clearly in the midst of it.

This narration may refer to one example out of its examples, but, it is not to limit the vast meaning of “Falaq”, of course.

The phrase in the second verse does not mean that the divine creation, by itself, has an evil because creation is the same as existence and existing is absolute goodness.


The Qur’an says in Surah Sajdah, No. 32, verse 7 :

الَّذِىۡۤ اَحۡسَنَ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقَهٗ وَبَدَاَ خَلۡقَ الۡاِنۡسَانِ مِنۡ طِيۡنٍۚ‏

Who made (perfected) everything He has created good, and He began the creation of man from clay.


Evil appears where the creatures diverge from the laws of creation and separate from the appointed path; for example, the sting (of insects) or the keen teeth of animals are their weapons to defend themselves against their enemies, and the same is true for the weapon we use against our enemies.

If this weapon is used appropriately it is ‘good’, but if it be used inappropriately and against friends it is ‘evil’.

Besides, there are many things that we, from their appearance, count as ‘evil’, but they are, indeed, ‘good’ like startling and warning events or infestations of pests, which awaken Man from the sleep of neglect and move him to seek the path of God and they are certainly not ‘evil’.


“And from the evil of the dark night when it comes,”

Then, explaining and commenting on the subject, it says: “And from the evil of the dark night when it comes,”

The term “Ghasiq” (غَاسِقٍ) is derived from “Ghasaq” (غسق) which, as Raqib cites in Mufradat, means ‘the intense darkness of the night which appears at midnight’ and that is why the Qur’an, referring to the end of the time of the sunset prayer, says:

“…till the darkness of the night… Surah. Bani Isra’il, No. 17, Verse 78

Some books of lexicon have rendered the word “Ghasiq” to mean ‘the darkness of the beginning of the night’ which, regarding the root of the word, seems improbable; and it is certain that the darkness of the night becomes full when it rushes into the midnight. One of the concepts that is essential for this meaning is ‘attack, or rush’. So, it has been applied with this meaning, too.

Therefore, the term “Ghasiq”, in the verse under discussion, means either ‘attacker’ or any ‘evil creature’ that uses the cover of the darkness of the night to attack, because not only the wild and biting animals come out of their dens at night and cause damage, but also filthy, defiled persons often misuse the darkness of the night for their wicked aims.


The term “Waqab” (وَقَبَ) derived from “waqb” (وَقْب) means ‘hole, ditch’, so, its verb with the meaning of ‘to enter into a hole’ has been used; or, it means ‘to overspread’.


“And from the evil of those who blow on knots (practice Secret Arts),”

The term “Naffathat” (نَّفَّاثَاتِ) is derived from “Nafatha” (نفث)  which originally means ‘to emit a little water out of the mouth’ and since it’s done by blowing, the term has been applied with the meaning of ‘to blow’.

But, many commentators have interpreted “Naffathat” with the meaning of ‘witches’ who blow on knots with a kind of incantation by which they practice sorcery, while some others have rendered the term in the sense of ‘tempting women’ , especially their own wives, who continuously murmur in the ears of men to weaken them from doing positive actions. Examples of these women are known in history.

Fakhr-i-Razi says that some women, to influence the affections of dignitaries’ hearts, occupy their thoughts . [Fakhr-i-Razi Commentary, vol. 32, p. 196.]

This idea is more clear in our time than in olden times, because one of the most important means of spy-influence in statesmen and politicians, of the world, are women spies who, with their ‘blowing on knots’, and their constant temptation and communication, unlock the safes of secrets and obtain the most vital information and deliver it to the enemy.

Again, some have interpreted “Naffathat” to mean ‘mischievous souls’ or inciteful societies who loosen the ‘knots’ or decisions with their constant propagations.

Of course, it should be noted that, apart from the former occasions of revelation, there is no trace, in the verse, to show that it properly refers to the witchcraft of sorcerers, and supposing that the verse be rendered so, it is not an evidence that the occasion of revelation is right. It only denotes that the holy Prophet (S) sought refuge in God from the evil of sorcerers, just like healthy people who seek refuge to God from the disease of cancer, though they have never been attacked by it.


“And from the evil of the envious (one) when he envies”

This verse shows that envy is the worst and the most disgraceful quality of the wicked actions, because the Qur’an has counted it equal to the behaviour of savage animals, biting snakes, and tempter Satans.


Explanations

1. The Most Important Sources of Vice and Corruption


At the beginning of this Surah, the Holy Prophet (S) is bidden to take refuge in God from the evil of all creatures.

Then, in its description three kinds of evil are pointed out:

a) the evil of ‘the dark night when it comes’;

b) the evil of ‘those who blow on knots’

and loosen the decisions of faith, belief, and love and relations, with their temptations and evil communications;

c) the evil of the ‘envious one’.

From this short, but meaningful, explanation it is clearly understood that the main origins of evil are these three sources which should be noted, completely.


2. The Influence of Sorcery

The explanation about the reality of sorcery in old times and today, and the viewpoint of Islam on sorcery, and whether it is effective or not, is described by commenting on some other verses of the Qur’an, such as, Surah Al-Baqarah, No. 2, verses 102 and 103. In those statements the effect of sorcery and witchcraft is somehow accepted, but, not in the form some superstitious people talk about.

The point that should be mentioned, here is that, on the one hand, when, in these verses, the Prophet (S) is bidden to take refuge to God from the evil of the witchcraft of sorcerers, and the like, it does not mean that the Prophet (S) has been bewitched by their evil arts; but, it is just that the Prophet (S) takes refuge to Allah from any errancy or mistake and sin, i.e., he, under the light of God’s Mercy, will be safe from the harm of those evils, and if it were not for the Mercy of God, the effect of witchcraft, on him, would be possible.

On the other hand, it was previously said that there is no evidence to support that the objective meaning of “Naffathat-i-fil -‘uqad” ‘those who blow on knots’ refers to ‘sorcerers’.


3. The Evil of the Envious

Envy is a hideous, evil quality which comes forth due to different factors, such as, weakness in faith, the existence of miserliness in the unity of a person, and which demands or wishes the destruction of another person’s blessing.

Envy is the origin of many great sins.

Envy, as mentioned in many Islāmic narrations, eats away and destroys the faith of Man.


Imam Al-Baqir (as) says: “Verily, envy eats Faith as fire eats wood”. [Bihar-ul-Anwar. vol. 73. p. 237]


Another tradition from Imam As-Sadiq (as) says: “The decay of religion is envy, arrogance and pride”. [Bihar-ul-Anwar. vol. 73. p. 237]


This is because an envious person, in fact, protests the Divine Wisdom of why He has given such blessings to some people and has covered them under His Grace, as Surah Nisa, No. 4, verse 54 says:

اَمۡ يَحۡسُدُوۡنَ النَّاسَ عَلٰى مَاۤ اٰتٰٮهُمُ اللّٰهُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِهٖ‌ۚ

“Or do they envy mankind for what God had given them of his bounty?”


For the reproach of envy, it is enough to mention, as an example, the first slaying that Man committed, in the world, where Cain killed his brother Abel, and the motive was envy. The envious ones have always been one of the hindrances on the way of prophets and Saints, and that is why the Holy Qur’an commands the Holy Prophet (S) ‘to take refuge with the Lord of the dawn’.

Though the Holy Prophet, himself, (S) is the addressee, in this Surah and the next one, certainly he is an example and all should take refuge in God from the evil of the envious ones.


The human is always exposed to devilish temptations and the Satans, of Jinn and men, try to penetrate into his heart. The higher the standard of his knowledge and degree of his social position, the more intense the temptations of the Satans will be until they divert him from the straight way and send him astray.

Surah An-Nas commands the Holy Prophet (S), as a leader and as an example, to seek refuge in God from the evil of any temptations.

The content of this Surah corresponds with the previous one, Surah Al-Falaq.


The subject is supplementary to that of the previous Surah. In both of them, Man is asked to take in God by using His name “Rabb, The Lord” with a difference that in Surah Falaq various kinds of external evil are mentioned, but in this Surah the evil of internal, hidden tempters is emphasized.

Opinions are divided as to whether this Surah is Meccan or Medinan, but the tone of the statements is more agreeable with other Meccan Suras.

Regarding the fact that this Surah and Surah Al-Falaq, according to the Islāmic narrations, have been revealed together, and in many commentators’ opinions Surah Al-Falaq is Meccan, this Surah can be considered Meccan, too.


There are numerous traditions on the virtue of reciting Surah An-Nas; for example, a tradition says that the Holy Prophet (S) became gravely ill (Not Bewitched). Gabriel and Michael, two great angels of Allah, came to him. Gabriel sat beside the head of the holy Prophet (S) and Michael sat near his feet. Gabriel recited Surah Al-Falaq and by it placed the Prophet (S) in the refuge of Allah; and Michael recited Surah Nas. [Nur-uth-Thaqalayn, vol. 5, p. 7645, and Majma’-al-Bayan, vol. 10, p. 569.]


In a tradition from Imam Al-Baqir (as), which was formerly mentioned, it is said:

“He who recites Surah Al-Falaq, Nas, and Ikhlas in his Witr (‘witr ‘ means ‘odd number rak’at’.) prayer he will be told ‘O servant of Allah, rejoice that Allah accepted your Witr prayer’. [Nur-uth-Thaqalayn, vol. 5, p. 7645, and Majma’-al-Bayan, vol. 10, p. 569.]


In this Surah An-Nas, which is the last Surah of the Holy Qur’an, the Prophet (S), again, is personally addressed, as an example to and a leader of people, and the command is:


“Say: I take refuge with the Lord of Mankind,”
“The King of Mankind,”
“The God of Mankind,”

It is interesting that, here three attributes of the magnificent attributes of Allah; Lordship, Ownership, and Divinity, are emphasized, all of which are directly concerned with the training of Man, and his rescue from the grips of the tempters.

Of course, the objective of ‘taking refuge with Allah’ is not that a person says this phrase merely with his tongue, but he should accomplish it with his thoughts, Faith, and actions. He should avoid devilish routes, devilish programs, devilish minds and communications, and devilish societies and meetings; and travel the divine paths; otherwise, the person who follows those devilish ways and lets himself fall into the hands of those temptations cannot be safe by only reciting this Surah.


‘The Lord of Mankind’, he confesses His Lordship and places himself under His guidance.

By saying ‘the King of Mankind’, he knows himself as His object, and His obedient servant.


By saying ‘The God of Mankind’,


he goes on the path of worshipping Him, and avoids worshipping others but Him. Undoubtedly, the person who is actually qualified with these three attributes, and truly believes in them, will be safe from the mischief of the tempters.


In fact, these three attributes are three important lessons of instruction and three means of rescue from the evil of temptations which keep Man safe.


“From the evil of the slinking whisperer,”
“Who whispers evil into the hearts of Mankind,”
“From among Jinn and Mankind.”

The term “waswas” (وَسْوَاسِ) has the infinitive meaning ‘to tempt’ and sometimes it is used, as in this verse, with the subjective meaning, ‘tempter’.

The term “Khannas” (الْخَنَّاسِ) is derived from “Khunus” (خنوس) with the meaning of ‘to gather, to remain behind’, and “Khannas”, here means ‘Satan’, because he hides himself and hiding is with the action of remaining behind, so, the word has been used in the sense of ‘to hide’.

Therefore, the meaning of the verses are: ‘Say I take refuge in God from the devilish tempter who runs away and hides himself from the name of God’.

Basically, the devilish ones acts are hidden, and sometimes they murmur temptations into our ears so that we believe that the ideas are our own thoughts. This very kind of thinking causes us to go astray.

The method of Satan is alluring and shows injustice in the form and under the guise of justice; lies inside a shell of truth; sin in the semblance of worship, and aberration in the appearance of guidance.

In short, they, themselves, and their affairs, both, are hidden, and this is a warning to all followers, of the right and the path of truth, not to expect to see Satans in their real form, or observe their activities in their true, crooked shape, No it will never be so. They are ‘slinking whisperers’ and their job is to plot, lie, be mischievous, be hypocritical, commit fraud and deceit, simulating truth, and hiding the right.


If they appear on the scene in their real form, if they do not mix wrong with right, and if they speak clearly and honestly, the truth would become apparent; as Imam Ali (as) says:

“The fact is, had falsehood been allowed to appear separately from truth, seekers of truth would have easily discerned it and would have kept away from falsehood…” [Nahj-ul-Balagha, Sermon 50, (Arabic Version).]


They always take parts of truth and falsehood and mix them together to get control over people; as Amir-al-Mo’mineen Ali (as), continuing the above sermon, says:

“…and Satan took advantage of this situation and gained complete control over the minds of its followers.” [Nahj-ul-Balagha, Sermon 50, (Arabic Version).]


The words

‘whispers’

and

‘hearts’

used in the verse:

“Who whispers evil into the hearts of Mankind”

are an emphasis on this idea.

All of these are on the one hand, and on the other hand the phrase:

“From Jinn and Mankind”

informs us that

‘the slinking whisperer’

is not among only a group of people or a special class of Man with a particular sign, but they can be found here and there among Jinn and Man with any form and in any society. We should be careful of them and take refuge with Allah from the evil of all of them.


At any moment it is possible that one may go astray, and when God bids His Apostle to take refuge with the Lord from the evil of the ‘slinking whisperer’, it is an evidence that becoming involved in the trap of the tempters, who whisper evil in people’s minds, is possible.

So, everyone must seek refuge to Allah, with His name “Rabb”, i.e., the Lord of Man, i.e., the Cherisher and Sustainer. By invoking this great attribute, Man can be hopeful and expect an especially particular retreat.

Everyone should seek refuge in God and understand that God is their King and Owner, invoking His authority over the affairs of Man, i.e., He is the One Who can independently act over His creation to seek the protection by invoking the divinity of the Lord as the God of Mankind, for it is His authority which must necessarily be obeyed, i.e., it is His command or His Will which is always done.


Therefore, against the evil of these whisperers, there are heavenly angels, for the believing servants of Allah and seekers of Truth, to come to help them; as Surah Fussilat, No. 41, Verse 30 says:

“In the case of those who say: ‘Our Lord is Allah’, and further, stand straight and steadfast, the angels descend on them (from time to time)…”

But, in any case, we should never be proud and feel that we are not in need of the Divine lessons, admonishments and assistance. We should always take refuge with Him and be aware and prepared.


عنه، عن أبي الجارود قال: قلت لأبي جعفر (عليه السلام): يا ابن رسول الله هل تعرف مودتي لكم وانقطاعي إليكم وموالاتي إياكم؟ قال: فقال: نعم، قال: فقلت: فإني أسألك مسألة تجيبني فيها فإني مكفوف البصر قليل المشي ولا أستطيع زيارتكم كل حين قال: هات حاجتك، قلت: أخبرني بدينك الذي تدين الله عز وجل به أنت وأهل بيتك لأدين الله عز وجل به قال: إن كنت أقصرت الخطبة فقد أعظمت المسألة والله لأعطينك ديني ودين آبائي الذي ندين الله عز وجل به، شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) والإقرار بما جاء به من عند الله والولاية لولينا والبراءة من عدونا والتسليم لأمرنا وانتظار قائمنا والاجتهاد الورع.

Abi Al-Jarood said:

“I asked Imam Al-Baqir (as) whether he knew about my love and sincerity for him and he answered he did. Then, I said I had a question for him to answer me, for my eyes were blind and I scarcely walked, so I could not always go to visit him. He wanted me to express my question. I requested him that he informed me of the creed by which he and his household adored Allah, Almighty and Glorious, so that I could worship Him, too, by it.

He responded:

‘You asked a great thing, though you stated a short expression.

By Allah, I give you (your answer of) my religion and the religion of my fathers by which we worship Allah, Almighty and Glorious.

It is the confession of faith that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad (S) is the Messenger of Allah, with affirmation that what has come to him (the Quran) is from Allah, having affection for us and the lovers and obedients of us (Ahlul-Bayt) and hatred to our enemies, surrender to our cause, awaiting our Qa’im (the twelveth Imam, for whom there is a domination that will come whenever Allah wills), and struggles (for establishing divine obligatories and lawful matters) and is pious, (he avoids unlawful things)’.” [Al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 34]


Supplication

O Lord! We, too, seek refuge to You from the evil of the envious ones.

O Lord! We ask You to protect us from being envious of others, too.

O Lord! Keep us safe and sound from the evil of those who ‘blow on knots’ and from their temptations against the path of Justice and Truth.

O Lord! Protect us all from the evil of every tempter and dark inspiration.

O Lord! The trap is deep, the enemy is wakeful, his plots are hidden, and rescue is impossible but with Your Grace.


 REFLECTION, PART.2 

On a daily basis, we as human beings are witnessing temptations. We find that the soul is created with goodness, but you with your own will can incline your own soul to a world of darkness and evil. The soul can also be described as whispering (50:16), prompting to evil (5:30 ; 20:96), and seducing (12:18). You also find God describing the soul as the passionate soul, or the soul that commands to evil (Al-nafs Al-ʿAmmārah bi-l-suʾ; 12:53). You also find this famous hadith in the world of literature of Sunnism : “Truly Satan flows in the blood of the son of Adam”.

From one perspective, it is Satan who suggests, tempts, prompts, and whispers, and the passionate soul then follows the caprices that arise rather than the commands of God. And From another perspective, only the soul that commands to evil has this propensity. In this vein, 43:36 says, And whosoever turns blindly away from the remembrance of the Compassionate, We assign to him a Satan who is then a companion unto him (see also 7:27) ; regarding the soul that commands to evil, see (12:53c; 75:1–2c; 89:27c).

You also find that the first sin of Adam and Eve was to listen to the whispers of Satan (7:20). Elsewhere Satan is described as the Deluder (31:33; 35:5); he seduces (47:25), causes people to forget (6:68; 12:42; 18:63; 58:19) or to slip (3:155), makes what is evil seem fair (6:43; 8:48; 16:63; 27:24; 29:38), desires to lead astray (4:60), and incites to evil (12:100). He is thus described in many verses as a manifest enemy (e.g., 2:168, 208; 6:142; 7:22; 12:5; 17:53).

We find that envy is the root of all evils, as the first sin to be committed in the celestial realm was Satan’s envy of Adam (see 2:34–36; 7:11–13) and the first sin to be committed on earth was Cain’s envy of Abel (see 5:27–31;). It is thus said that those who envy the favor bestowed upon others oppose the blessings of God.


We see that darkness can occur in our lives. We as Muslims must know that God created everything good. A knife can hurt and support a whole village. It depends on how we as people choose to use our resources with the good soul that is inclined to goodness, and how we choose to utilize this inclination with our will which is also inclined to goodness.

We as Muslims must be the light in the darkness that we ourselves have created. We as Muslims have to realize that the light exists within us and that God wants us to search for Him in every stage of darkness and lack of goodness that can arise in our societies where all members of a society CHOOSE with their own will to leave the duties of society and leaving society’s responsibilities. We all have a responsibility to build up society by seeking help in God and knowing that God owns every kingdom of goodness.

There will also be situations where Muslim women themselves, religious and non-religious will tempt members of society, especially men. Myself and many other Muslim men feel it. I do not want to paint a picture that our women are bad or that other non-Muslim women are evil. Absolutely not, but the temptation exists and occurs constantly in our societies. Sometimes the enemy is our own enemy. Imam Ali (AS): “Our enemy is not the Jews and Christians, our enemy is our own ignorance”

Ahlulbayt (AS) themselves had so much envy on them. NOT FROM NON-MUSLIMS, but from Muslims themselves. The so called “Muslims” killed Ahlulbayt (AS). Who else?

If the Muslims at that time were so envious that they killed and slaughtered the Prophet’s family (AS) 1400 years ago, do you not think the history will repeat itself in today’s society?


However, we must also reflect on the situation in Mecca and which spiritual diseases they had. Mecca had one of those worst heart disease you can think of, and even today Mecca’s population is generally a people who do not have the best reputation.

Mecca was a city of darkness and a city that became darker and darker. Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-Nas give us the opportunity to reflect on the darkness that existed in Mecca and in other previous empires that also suffered from darkness and oppression, such as the kingdom of Pharaoh who attributes Lordship, Divine Kingship and Divinity to himself :


فَقَالَ اَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الۡاَعۡلٰى

Pharaoh said : “I am the supreme lord of you all.”

[79:24]


وَنَادٰى فِرۡعَوۡنُ فِىۡ قَوۡمِهٖ قَالَ يٰقَوۡمِ اَلَيۡسَ لِىۡ مُلۡكُ مِصۡرَ وَهٰذِهِ الۡاَنۡهٰرُ تَجۡرِىۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِىۡۚ اَفَلَا تُبۡصِرُوۡنَؕ

And Pharaoh called out among his people ; he said : ” O my People, does not the kingdom of Egypt belong to me, and these rivers flowing beneath me ; then do you not see?

[43:51]


وَقَالَ فِرۡعَوۡنُ يٰۤـاَيُّهَا الۡمَلَاُ مَا عَلِمۡتُ لَـكُمۡ مِّنۡ اِلٰهٍ غَيۡرِىۡ ۚ فَاَوۡقِدۡ لِىۡ يٰهَامٰنُ عَلَى الطِّيۡنِ فَاجۡعَلْ لِّىۡ صَرۡحًا لَّعَلِّىۡۤ اَطَّلِعُ اِلٰٓى اِلٰهِ مُوۡسٰى ۙ وَاِنِّىۡ لَاَظُنُّهٗ مِنَ الۡـكٰذِبِيۡنَ‏

And Pharaoh said, “O Eminent ones, I have not known you to have a god other than me. Then ignite for me, O Haman, [a fire] upon the clay and and make for me a tower that I may look at the God of Moses. And indeed, I do think he is among the liars.”

[28:38]


Here we see that Pharoah attributed itself to Lordship, Kingship and Divinity. Surah An-Nas teaches you how to seek refuge in God, how to seek refuge in the Lord of mankind, in the King of Mankind and in the God of mankind. This is a teaching that is teaching mankind to be humble and it is teaching a human being that he is not a Lord, King or a God, but that he is simply a human being who strives for humility.

“I have taken refuge with my Lord and your Lord against every arrogant person who does not believe in the Day of Reckoning.” [Al-Mu’min: 27]. And: “I have taken refuge with my Lord and your Lord lest you should assail me.” [Ad-Dukhan;20]

Remember that you should let these two Surahs open your heart like a “Falaq”, a Daybreak that opens up your heart from the darkness of every dark trait that has been cultivated in your heart, and that you should always seek refuge in the Lord that opens up every single thing, from every tight aspect that closes up doors and ways for a human being when he or she lives his is seeking a way out : ” And for those who is pious to God, He prepares a way out [for the one who is pious].” [65:2]

Sometimes we need an opening in life that opens up things for us from dark aspects. One should also know that God is not evil in himself and that evil is something we humans have created with our own hands. Both God and man have wills, we can create and we can destroy, and that can also God do, but one cannot compare God and man in this aspect. No evil comes from God, but it comes from ourselves, and no magic or other evil influences are can influence us more than God can do with his light and his goodness : “Whatever of Good reaches you, is from God, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself, and we have sent you (Oh Muhammad) as a messenger to Mankind, and God is sufficient as a witness.” [4:79]

But that does not mean that evil is something that exists within us. Evil is just ” a lack of goodness “. Right now I have a flu, I know that a flu within me is not something evil in itself, but it is a symptom of the immune system that is fighting against viruses created in the body of external influences of an infection. Yes you feel tired and you feel down, but you know that it will go over quickly if you choose to take care of yourself with your will. We humans are interdependent of one another. Everything that happens in a society affects the other. When a society lives in a situation of darkness and war, everyone will be affected. When a society feels good and thrives, it will automatically affect everyone else. This is an indication that we humans have a collective will to create, build and destroy. We can help each other to feel better, both spiritually and physically, but at the same time we can also push each other down and put a cover of oppression and falsehood on each other. We see today that cancer is a deadly disease, but the cure is there: cannabis oil, and no, you can’t fool me, my big brother is a doctor, and the cure is there, but the pharmacy industries have chosen to prioritize the money over the health of the people. “Evil is a lack of goodness” and It is a will, because as we all know as Muslims, there is a cure for every disease, and we Muslims strongly believe in this. The Spiritual and the bodily cures are there for those who want to open their eyes.

We all know that there will always be people who will carry hatred and misery in the heart. One of the areas I grew up in is called Rosengard, in Malmö, and Rosengard is an area with many Muslims and one can say that 95 percent of Rosengard are Muslims. Can you imagine that even in Rosengard, there is black magic that is going on, because of envy and misery between families?

It’s a tragic reality, and yes, many of these people who are exploited in the world of magic are women, but that doesn’t mean that all women are evil. What I want to say is that many criminals today use women as tools, even in the criminal world. Malmö today, has many women who are criminals and who are used as tools of criminals so that criminals can achieve their goals.

Both Jinn and Mankind can be each other’s allies. You should know one thing that Satan can come in a form of a Jinn and a Human. You should also know that Satan does not have any authority over you: ” Surely he [Satan] has no authority over those who believe and rely on their Lord. [16:99] “

You have a chest that is your castle, and your heart is what you grow in it. Satan can whisper outside the castle, but he has no authority over your heart and soul. Only God has authority over your heart and soul : “O Turner of the hearts, keep my heart firm on your religion”. So rely on God and believe in God, and make sure that you are one of the soldiers of goodness and one of the soldiers of God!


A GLANCE AT ENVY

As we know, Envy (Hasad) is one of dark spiritual traits of a human being. God has emphasized that his bounties come from his grace, and that we should not be envious of each other. …Or do they envy [other] people because of what Allah has given them of His bounty? (Qur’an, chapter 4, verse 54).


AhlulBayt (A) have also highlighted the danger of envy and its consequences in a society and how it’s affecting the soul in a negative way:

Abu `Abd Allah (al‑Imam al‑Sadiq) (a) said that the Apostle of God (s) said that God Almighty addressed Musa ibn `Imran (a) as follows: “O son of `Imran, never be envious of people concerning the favours I have conferred on them by My grace; do not glower at them, and do not succumb to your (envious) self. Indeed, the envious man is indignant at the bestowal of My favour and contests My apportioning of gifts among My creatures. Whoever is such, he neither belongs to Me nor do I belong to him.” [Al-Kulayni, Usul al‑Kafi,vol. 2, p. 307, Bab al-Hasad, hadith no. 6]

Envy is without a doubt a state, where a person wishes for the deprivation of a blessing, talent, or merit that are possessed by another person (The Mahsud).

Without a doubt, this is a problem which the Muslim and the Non-Muslim world is suffering from at the moment. Families, Societies, Countries and Human relationships have been destroyed because of the venomous arrow of envy.


The scholar al‑`Allamah al‑Majlisi has mentioned seven causes and motives of hasad. We have listed these causes and in some cases, provided examples of Hasad corresponding to the cause:

  1. Enmity: Hasad can be the result of enmity. For example, enmity against another family, tribe or group can cause one to envy successes they achieve.
  1. The sense of one’s supremacy: The hasid (one who envies) anticipates the pride of the mahsud on account of a merit mahsud Not having the patience to put up with this pride, the hasid feels a sense of superiority and earnestly desires the loss of this merit.
  1. Kibr (pride) and Wonder: The hasid high‑handedly treats the person who is conferred some merit, favour, or talent, and may wonder to see a great blessing enjoyed by the object of his envy. For example, a wealthy individual outwardly looks with disdain upon the respect enjoyed by a poor person believing that he deserves to be the recipient of such admiration.
  1. Fear and Love of Authority: Also, the envious man is fearful of some hindrance on the part of the person enjoying an advantage or talent or merit that may frustrate his cherished objectives. Such fear manifests itself when one’s acquiring or preserving authority over others requires that nobody should share his advantages or merits. For example, one who wishes to be re-elected as the leader of an organization may desire that no other member step forward and exhibit leadership skills such as eloquence of speech and efficiency of organization and mobilization.
  1. Viciousness of nature: A human being of vicious nature does not like to see others enjoying any kind of good whatsoever. Such a person always greets news of another’s good fortune for example, in education or business, with sarcasm, pessimism, and ridicule or with other unethical tactics or conduct.

Hasad is without a doubt one of the deadliest diseases of the heart that is not only going to destroy your surrounding but your spirit as well. Consequences will emerge, such as hypocrisy, backbiting, abuse, slandering, taunting and even psychological and physical torture of a human being.

One should always distinguish between Hasad (الحسد) and Ghibta (الغبطة). Hasad is when you are envious of a human being in a very negative way. Ghibta is more connected to jealousy, which is a “positive envy” where, for example, you see someone who is prosperous and successful and you say, for example, “MashAllah, May God give him more” or “I wish I was like my role model Zlatan” and so on.

The Prophet Muhammad (s) said: “Beware! Do not bear enmity with the blessings of God.” When asked about the people who bear enmity with the blessings of God, he (s) replied: “Those who are envious.” (Al-Mu`tazali, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol.1, p. 315)

Imam Ali (a) said: “Envy is a great trap of Satan.” (Al-Amadi, Gharar al-Hakam wa darar al-Kalam, hadith no. 1133)

Imam Ali (a) said: “A Hasid is a sick person though he (may) physically appear to be healthy.” (Gharar, hadith no. 1963)

Muhammad ibn Muslim reports that al-Imam al‑Baqir (a) said: “A man may be forgiven for something done in a fit of anger, but Hasad devours faith as fire consumes wood.” (Al-Kulayni, Usul al‑Kafi, vol. 2, p. 306, Bab al-Hasad, hadith no. 1)

Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq (a) is reported to have said: “Satan says to his soldiers: “Instil hasad and disobedience of God among them (bani Adam) as these are equal to shirk (polytheism) in the eyes of God.” (Al-Kulayni, Usul al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 327, Bab al-Baghy, hadith no. 2)

Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq (a) said that Luqman (a) said to his son: “There are three signs of a Hasid: (1) He is a backbiter at the back (2) He is a flatterer in front and (3) He is happy when a misfortune befalls (the envied). (Al-Saduq, Al-Khisal, p. 121, hadith no. 113)


Know that the envy you cultivate in your heart will never affect a human being more negatively than yourself.

– Amir Zabidi


You must force yourself to be affectionate with the one you are envious of and try to build a relationship of goodness with that human being. You also must build up your self-esteem. You have to belief in yourself and that God has instilled great capabilities within yourself. It’s just up to you to utilize the hidden talent and the inner treasure you have within your own self!

You also need to understand that people, besides the infallibles, make mistakes and we are ordinary human beings who aren’t flawless. We make mistakes over mistakes, errors after errors, but that’s not what counts. What counts is how you can build your weaknesses into strengths and how you can transform your deficiencies into advantages. At the same time, you should use all your strengths you have within you and develop them into stronger building blocks.

If, God forbid, the object of your envy is a scholar endowed with knowledge or piety, you must understand that he is from the chosen ones of God, blessed by great merit. Try to generate love and humbleness towards him and try to learn from his knowledge and his wisdom so that you and the scholar can reach a delighted, reciprocal level and a common rank.

At any stage during your treatment, don’t think that this moral vice is not curable; this erroneous notion is inspired by Satan and the lower self (al-nafs al-ammara), who want to frustrate your efforts of curing yourself. Have hope in God Almighty Who has promised that He will guide those who struggle and help them through His invisible grace and increase their capacities. (Imam Al-Khomeini, Forty Hadith, chapter 5 ‘Hasad’)

Know that Hasad is a disease of the soul that has grave psychological, moral, and social consequences. Fortunately, with faith and, sincere and persistent efforts, it is curable. A faithful person is optimistic, loving, kind and has a hopeful attitude towards God and his creatures, and is satisfied with the way He has divided His bounties among His beloved creatures and creations that are blessed in different ways.

Imam Ali (a) said: “The person who gives up hasad is loved by people.” (Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 77, p. 237, hadith no. 1)


KNOW AND CURE ENVY IN 6 STAGES

1. ” Know that the envy you cultivate in your heart will never affect a human being more negatively than yourself. “

– Amir Zabidi


2. Imam al‑Baqir (a) said: “Envy devours faith as fire devours wood.”

[Al-Kulayni, Usul al‑Kafi, vol. 2, p. 306, Bab al-Hasad, hadith no. 1]


3. ..God has endeared faith to you and made it beautiful to your hearts..

[Qur’an 49:7]


4. So don’t endear and cultivate envy in your hearts!


5. ” When you as a Muslim connect yourself to the Qur’an and the Ahlulbayt (A), then your thoughts will flourish, your heart will grow and your soul will reach the hearts of Humanity. “

– Amir Zabidi


6. Prophet Muhammed (S) said : “I leave behind me two weighty things, hold on to them and you will never ever go astray, The Qur’an and My Ahlulbayt (A) “


Sunni references :

1. Al-Bukhari, al-­Ta’rikh al-­kabir, iii, 96;

2. Muslim, Sahih, bab fada’il ‘Ali, no. 2408;

3. Ahmad, Musnad, iii, 17, iv, 366;

4. ‘Abd ibn Humayd, Musnad, no. 265;

5. Ibn Sa’d, and

6. Abu Ya’la from Abu Sa’id, as mentioned in Jam’ al-­jawami’ and Kanz al-­‘ummal;

7. Ishaq ibn Rahwayh, in his Sahih., as mentioned by Ibn Hajar in al-­Matalib al-Aliyah, iv, 65, no. 1873, where he states that its isnad is sahih, and also by al-Busayri in Ithaf al-­sadah (MS in Topcopi Library, vol. 3, F.55b) who, too, considers the isnad as sahih;

8. Ibn Khuzaymah, Sahih, MS in Topcopi Library, F.240;

9. al-­Darimi, Sunan, ii, 310, no. 2319;

10. Abu Dawud, Sunan, as mentioned in Sibt ibn al-­Jawzi, Tadhkirat khawass al-ummah, 322;

11. Abu ‘Uwwanah, Musnad, as mentioned in al-­Shaykhani, al-­Sirat al-­sawi;

12. al-­Bazzaz, from Umm Hani, as mentioned in Wasilat al-­ma’al;

13. Ibn Abi ‘Asim, Kitab al-­Sunnah, 629, no. 1551, 630, no. 1555, 629, no. 1551;

14. al-­Ya’qubi, Ta’rikh, ii, 112;

15. al-­Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, 110, no. 48, the biographical account of ‘Ali (A);

16. al-­Hafiz al-­Hasan ibn Sufyan al-­Nasawi, the author of Musnad, from Hudhayfah ibn Usayd, as mentioned by Abu Nu’aym, al-­Hilyah, i, 355,

17. al-­Fasawi, al-­Ma’rifah wa al-­ta’rikh, i, 536;

18. Ibn Jarir al-­Tabari, from Hudhayfah ibn Usayd, Zayd ibn Arqam (with al-­Nasa’i’s wording as well as with the wording of Muslim), Abu Sa’id al-­Khudri, as cited in Jam’ al-­jawami’, ii, 357, 395, Kanz al-’ummal, 12911, xiii, 36441, 36340, 37620, 37621, 36341, Jami’ al-ahadith, vii, 14523, 15112, 15122, 15113, iv, 7773, 8072, 8073;

19. al-­Dulabi, al-­Dhurriyyat al-­tahirah, no. 228;

20. al-­Hafiz al-­Tahawi, Mushkil al- ‘athar, ii, 307, iv, 368;

21. al-­Hakim al-­Tirmidhi, Nawadir al-usul, from Hudhayfah ibn Usayd;

22. al-­Tabarani, al-­Mu’jam al-­kabir, iii, 2679, 2681, 2683, 3052, v, 4969, 4970, 4971, 4986, 5026, 5028;

23. al-­Hakim, al-­Mustadrak ‘ala al-­Sahihayn, iii, 109, 110 where he expressly states, as mentioned above, that the tradition is sahih in accordance with the criteria of al-­Bukhari and Muslim; al-­Dhahabi has confirmed his judgment;

24. Abu Nu’aym, Hilyat al-awliya’, i, 355, ix, 64;

25. al-­Bayhaqi, al-­Sunan al-­kubra, ii, 148, vii, 30, x, 114;

26. al-­Khatib, Tarikh Baghdad, viii, 442;

27. Ibn al-­Maghazili, Manaqib Amir al-­Mu’minin (A), 23;

28. Ibn ‘Asakir, Ta’rikh Dimashq, ii, 45, no. 547, the biographical account of ‘Ali (A), and v, 436 of Badran’s edition in the biographical account of Zayd ibn Arqam;

29. al-­Baghawi, Masabih al-­Sunnah, ii, 205 and Sharh al-­Sunnah (MS in Topcopi Library, vol. 2, F. 718), bab Manaqib Ahlul Bayt;

30. Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-­ghabah, iii, 92 in the biographical account of ‘Amir ibn Layla, no. 2727;

31. Ibn Hajar, al-Isabah in the biographical account of ‘Amir;

32. al-Mizzi, Tuhafat al-ashraf, iii, 203, no. 3688 from Muslim and al-­Nasa’i;

33. al-­Diya’ al-­Muqaddisi, al-­Mukhtarah, as cited by al-­Samhudi and al-­Sakhawi;

34. Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaj al-­Sunnah, iv, 85;

35. al-Dhahabi, Talkhis al-­Mustadrak, iii, 109;

36. Ibn Kathir, al-­Bidayah wa al-­nihayah, v, 209, vi, 199, from al-­Nasa’i, where he quotes al-Nasa’i’s statement that this narration is sahih;

37. al-­Khazin, Tafsir under verses 42:23 and 3:103;

38. al-­Mulla, Wasilat al-­muta’abbidin, v, 199;

39. al-Haythami, Majma’ al-­zawa’id, ix, 163 from Zayd, 164 from Hudhayfah.

40. Jami’ At-Tirmidhi, Eng Ref : Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3788, Arabic ref : Book 49, Hadith 4157


Peace and Blessings be upon The Holy Prophet (S) and His Family (A)


| Sayyid Abbas Sadr-‘ameli and Amir Zabidi


| REFLECTIONS ON THE CHAPTERS OF THE DAYBREAK [113] AND MANKIND [114]

Leave a Reply