REFLECTIONS ON THE CHAPTER OF MONOTHEISM AND SINCERITY 
In the Name of God, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful.
The Tawhid of AhlulBayt (A)
قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
“Say: He, Allah, is One,” [112:1]
Allah, the Eternal,” [112:2]
لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ
“He begets not, nor is He begotten,” [112:3]
وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ
“And there is none like unto Him.” [112:4]
Contents of the Surah and its different names
This Surah, as its name indicates, is about the Unity of God, and His Oneness. In its four verses, the Surah describes monotheism completely. It’s the 112th surah in the Qur’anic order and the 22nd Surah in the chronological order of the Holy Qur’an.
The title, al-Iklhāṣ, instead describes its content, as it denotes a combination of sincerity, devotion, and purity and can also indicate being saved (khalaṣa).
This Sūrah has been known by at least twenty different epithets, among them “The Absolver” (al-Barāʾah), because anyone who recites it with sincerity is absolved of the practice of idolatry; “The One That Casts Away” (al-Munaffirah), because it casts Satan away from one who recites it; “Deliverance” (al-Najāh), because it delivers one from ascribing likeness (tashbīh) unto God ; “Recognition” (Al-Maʿrifah), because true knowledge of God can only be obtained by recognizing the truth of what this Sūrah contains ; “The Reminder” (al-Mudhakkirah), because it reminds one of Divine Unity (tawḥīd) in a pure and simple form ; and “The Light of the Quran” (Nūr Al-Qurʾān), because of a ḥadīth that says, “Everything has a light, and the light of the Quran is Sūrat al-Ikhlāṣ”.
In summarizing the merits and the centrality of this Sūrah, al-Rāzī writes, “The entire Quran is an oyster, and the pearl is His statement Say, ‘He, God, is One.’” 
Occasion of Revelation of the Surah
On the occasion of revelation of this Surah, a tradition from Imam Sadiq (as) says:
“A Jew asked the holy Prophet (S) to describe the identity or to relate the geneology of Allah. He remained silent and gave no answer for three days, then, the Messenger Angel brought (him) this Surah and he (S) gave them their answer.” 
Some other narrations denote that the Jew who asked this question was, Abdullah ibn Suriya, one of the known chiefs of the Jews. Another narration says that ‘Abdullah ibn Salam asked this question from the holy Prophet (S), in Mecca, and believed (in Islam). But he kept his faith concealed.
Another narration says that the pagans of Mecca asked such a question. 
In some narrations it is also said that the Christians of Najran asked the question.
There is no contradiction in these narrations because the question may have been asked by all of them, separately, which is, itself, an evidence to the extraordinary importance of this Surah, which answers the questions of different persons from various groups.
The Virtue of Studying this Surah
On the virtue of reciting this Surah, numerous narrations from The Holy Prophet (S) and Ahlul-Bait (as) are cited in Islamic sources which refer to the extraordinary greatness of the Surah. The author of Atyab-ul-Bayan Commentary collected 25 of them. 
The holy Prophet (S) is narrated to have said in a tradition:
“Is there anyone of you unable to recite one third of the Qur’an in one night”?
One of his listeners asked:
“O Messenger of Allah! Who is able to do that”?
The Prophet (S) said:
‘Say: He, Allah, is One! (Surah Ikhlas)”. 
A tradition says that the recitation of this Surah, when arriving at a home, causes the increase of sustenance and removing poverty from the people therein. 
There are ninety different traditions and narrations mentioned, with their approved references, on the virtue and commentary of this Surah in Tafsir-i-Nur-uth- Thaqalayn.
On the idea that reading this Surah is equal to one third of the whole Qur’an, some have said that it is for the reason that the Holy Qur’an contains ordinances, creeds, and history, and this Surah states the creed part in an intensive form.
Some others have said that the Qur’an is made up of three main themes; origin, end, and what is in the middle between these two, and this Surah is about the first theme.
This meaning, that about one third of the Qur’an is the description of monotheism, is also acceptable; the extract of which has come in this Surah.
In conclusion, of this statement, we cite a tradition on the splendour of the Surah.
Imam Ali-ibn al-Husain az-Zain-ul-Abideen (as) was asked about Surah Ikhlas (Monotheism), and he said:
“Verily Allah, the Almighty and Glorious, knew that at the end of time there will come some people who will be precise and careful (in affairs), then, He sent down the Surah (Ikhlas), and the beginning verses of Surah Hadid up to ‘And He has full knowledge of the secrets of (all) hearts’. Everyone who seeks beyond this will perish”. 
1.“Say: He, God, is One,”
2. “God, the Eternal,”
3. “He begets not, nor is He begotten,”
4. “And there is none like unto Him.”
Reflection #1 of the Chapter of Monotheism and Sincerity 
The first verse of this Surah, is an answer to the repeated question of many persons from different groups of people or tribes who asked about the attributes and identity of God.
The command is:
“Say: He, God, is One,”
It begins with the Arabic term “huwa” = هُوَ = ‘He’ which is a pronoun-third-person-singular and refers to something known to all, but ambiguous and not identified with any, as against the usual reference in the term of first person singular ‘I’.
It is, indeed, a code referring to the fact that His Holy Being is extremely concealed, and no human thought or imagination can touch it, though the signs of His Existence have filled the world, totally, and are more apparent and clear than all things, as Surah Fussilat, [No. 41, verse 53] says :
سَنُرِيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الْآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَتَّی يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ
“Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth…” [Surah Fussilat,No. 41, verse 53]
Then, it makes this unknown fact manifest by saying that ‘God is One’. By the way, the term “Qul” = قُلْ =, here means ‘express this fact and tell others’.
A tradition from Imam Muhammad Baqir (as) says that after expressing this statement he has said:
“Pagans and idol worshippers used to point to their idols using demonstrative pronouns and say:
‘O Muhammad, these are our gods that can be seen. You, too, describe your God so that we can see and understand’.
God revealed these verses: ‘Say: He, God, is one’, and the “h” in the word “huwa” refers to the confirmation of the matter and takes it into consideration. And “w” is a third person pronoun which refers to the meaning that it is concealed from the sight of the eyes and it is beyond the limits of the touch of the senses”. 
In another tradition, Imam Amir-ul-Mo’mineen Ali (as) says:
“On the night before the battle of Badr I saw ‘Khidr’ in my dream. I asked him to teach me something with which I would defeat the enemies.
He told me:
‘Say: “ya hu ya man la huwa illa hu” = ياهو يامن لاهو الا هو
The next morning, I told the Messenger of God (S) what had happened, and he (S) said:
‘O Ali, you have been taught the Greatest Name (of God)’.
Thereafter, I repeatedly said the phrase in the battle of Badr “.
When ‘Ammar Yasir heard that Hazrat Ali (as) was reciting this phrase, habitually, while he was fighting on the day of Siffin, he asked him what it was, and Hazrat Ali (as) replied:
“It is the Greatest Name (of Allah) and the pillar of monotheism”.
Allah is a proper name for God, and the meaning of the Imam’s expression is that in this very word are gathered all His attributes of Bounty and Glory, and due to this it has been called ‘the Greatest of Names’.
This proper name is used for nothing but God, while other names for Allah, each of which usually refers to one of His qualities of Beauty and Glory, are often used for other than Him.
The root of the word Allah is mentioned differently; but the famous one of them is “Al- Ilah and Alihah = اله = الاله .However, Allah, from whatever root it is, has been used as a proper noun, applied to ‘the Being Who exists necessarily, by Himself; comprising all the attributes of perfection; a proper name denoting the true god, containing all the excellent, divine names; a unity having all the essence of existing things’.
This Sacred Name is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an almost one thousand times, which is more than any other name of His Holy Names. This name brings light in our heart, makes us firm and calm, and takes us into a world full of purity and serenity.
The term “Ahad” = احد is derived from “wahdah” = وحده, and some believe that “ahad” and “wahid” = واحد are the same in many cases. In this case, “Ahad” is interchangeable with “wahid” when it is used as an epithet applied for Allah, because “All-Ahad”, as an epithet, is applied to Allah alone, and signifies ‘the One’; the Soul; He Who has always been one and alone; or the Indivisible; or He Who has no second (to share) in His Lordship, nor in His Essence, nor in His attributes.
One can say “Huwa Al-Wahid” and “Huwa Al-Ahad” and in like manner, “Ahad” without the article being used as an epithet, especially in relation to Allah. It is interchangeable, in this case, (but not in other cases) with “wahid”. In this verse “Ahad” is a substitute for Allah, just as an indeterminate noun is sometimes a substitute for a determinate noun.
But, some others believe that there is a vast difference between the two Arabic words “Ahad” and “wahid” both commonly thought to mean ‘Oneness’. To indicate the Unity of God, it is said, in this verse, that God is Allah, i.e. One; One in the sense of Absolute Oneness of His Essential Existence, not in the numerical sense of the word, which has its second and third, but, the One “Ahad” in the Arabic language has no second whatsoever.
The expression ‘One’, is in the sense of being the ‘ONLY’ and in conceiving Whose existence, all faculties of the human intellect are helpless. He is such a One that even His attributes are His Essence and are not and can never be separate from Him.
It is a death blow which Islam has rendered, about the All-Divine, to all imaginary concepts of any kind of polytheistic doctrines and the phenomena of plurality.
He is One with none comparable to Him, without any beginning or end, unlimited by time, space or circumstances. A reality before which all others have no existence. He is the Creator, One, and everything is His creation.
A tradition from Imam Muhammad Baqir (as) says:
“Ahad’ and ‘wahid’ both have one concept which is One with nothing comparable or similar to it, and monotheism is the confession to His Oneness”. 
In the Qur’an “wahid” and “Ahad”, both, refer to Allah, the One, the Only.
In the next verse, another epithet of that Holy Essence is referred to:“Allah, the Eternal”
Many meanings are mentioned for “Samad” = الصَّمَدُ in Islamic narrations, commentaries, and lexicons.
Raqib cites in Mufradat that ‘Samad means a Lord; one to whom reference is made in matters of importance’. Some others have said that ‘Samad’ means ‘something whose inside is not hollow, but it is full’.
It also means ‘a Lord’, when applied for Allah, because affairs are dependent upon Him. ‘Samad’ signifies one who is high or elevated in the utmost highness, and a Lord to whom one resigns himself, has recourse to, or is in need of, or One above Whom there is no one, or One Who continues, after His creatures have perished.
Imam Hussein ibn Ali (as), in a tradition, has stated five meanings for ‘Samad ‘
- Samad is a Lord Whose Lordship has attained its utmost point or degree.
- Samad is an Essence and Being that continues or continues for ever or is everlasting.
- Samad is the Existence that has not a hollow inside.
- Samad is the One Who takes no nourishment, food or drink.
- Samad is One Who does not sleep. 
A tradition from Imam Ali-ibn-Al Hussein (as) says:
“Samad’ is One Who has no partner and it is not difficult for Him to protect things, and nothing is hidden from Him”.
Some others have said “Samad” means ‘independent of anyone’ – All perfect – the One to Whom recourse is made by everything: Eternal for its needs, both for existence and for perfection; the One Who needs no sustenance of any kind-Self-existing to understand, whose existence, every mind is captured in marvel and wonder. Nothing is hidden from His all-enveloping knowledge-is not accommodatable in anything, not even in intellect: Infinite in all aspects of existence and attributes.
The term “Samad” has such a vast meaning that we cannot mention them, completely, or in other words, the names or the attributes, mentioned to describe its nature, cannot be translated to covey the exact sense to the fullest meaning of the terms.
A tradition denotes that the citizens of Basrah wrote a letter to Imam Hussein (as) and asked him the meaning of “Samad”.
“In the Name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful:
then do not plunge in vain talk about the Qur’an and do not dispute about it and do not speak about it when you do not know (it). Verily, I heard from my grandfather, the Messenger of God, who said:
‘the person who talks about the Qur’an without knowing (it), his abode will be in fire’.
God, Himself, has rendered ‘Samad’ to mean: ‘He begets not, nor is He begotten’, ‘And there is none like unto Him’…
Yes, God is ‘Samad’ Who is not from anything and is not in anything or on anything; He is the Creator of everything and all are from Him by His Power; what He has created to perish will perish at His Will, and what He has created to remain will remain in His Knowledge. This is Allah; Al-Samad”. 
In the next verse, it rejects the idea of the Christians, the Jews, and the pagan Arabs who declared that God had a child or is a father.
It says: “He begets not, nor is He begotten”
Different from this is the statement of those who believe in Trinity; the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost.
Christians know ‘Jesus’ as the son of God. The Jews believe ‘Ezra’ (‘Uzair) was the son of God:
“The Jews call ‘Uzair a son of God, and the Christians call Christ the son of God. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the Unbelievers of old used to say. Allah’s curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the Truth!” 
The Arab pagans believed that angels were the daughters of Allah:
“…And they falsely having no knowledge, attribute to Him sons and daughters…” 
It is understood from some of the Islamic narrations that ‘begets’, in the verse under discussion, has a broader meaning. It negates any material and delicate things emerging from Him, or He, the Sacred Essence, emerging from any material and delicate thing.
In the above mentioned letter of Imam Hussein (as) to the people of Basrah, about the commentary of the term “Samad”, he commented on the current verse, saying:
“Lam yalid” = لَمْ يَلِدْ, i.e. there emitted nothing from Him – neither material things nor a child, nor other things that emit from creatures, nor a delicate thing like a soul.
Nothing appears in Him, such as sleep, imagination, grief, sadness, happiness, laughter, tears, fear and hope, courage and discouragement, hunger and satiety.
God is more exalted than that something should emit from Him, or that He begets something material or delicate, nor is He begotten from something material or delicate…
Similar to a living creature coming out from another one, or a plant from the earth, water from a spring, fruits from trees, nor the like, emitting delicate things from their sources, such as vision from the eye, hearing from the ears, smelling from the nose, tasting from the mouth, speech from the tongue, knowledge and understanding from the heart (insight and soul), and particles of fire from stone…” 
According to this tradition, ‘begets’ conveys a vast meaning, so that it may envelop any emitting things of any kind from anything else, and this is, in fact, the second meaning of the verse whose first and apparent meaning was the meaning that was mentioned in the beginning.
Besides, the second meaning, with the analogy of the first meaning, is quite adaptable and understandable; since, if Allah has no children, it is because He is aloof from the qualities of material. This meaning is also right for other qualities of matter.
“And there is none like unto Him”. The term “kufu’” = كُفُوا originally means ‘equal from the point of position and rank’, then, it is used for any similarity. Considering this verse, the Holy Essence of God is free from all qualities or obstacles that creatures have, and free from all defects and limitations. This is ‘Unity of Attributes’ that corresponds with ‘Unity of Number’.
Therefore, He is One in Essence, in attributes, and in deeds; and He is unique in every aspect.
Amir-al-Mo’mineen Ali (as) has said:
“…no change can take place in Him and no lessening, diminishing, dwindling, decay and dissipation of His Mighty and Glory is possible, that He is not begotten from anyone nor does He beget anyone… He has no peer and no equal. He can destroy things created by Himself in such a way that they will cease to exist and disappear into nothingness…” 
This is an interesting commentary because it discusses the narrowest points of Unity. It warns us not to ascribe our qualities and attributes to God and thus, not to create our glorified image as a personal deity.
Explanation: The Belief in the Oneness of God
The belief in God, as the Creator of the great universe, is the basis of Islam, and the criterion of thought, education, behaviour and action of the Muslim. All the details of the doctrine, nature and life’s philosophy, etc. are built on this foundation : Belief in God, in Islam and is based on logical evidence Islam disapproves of imitation.
In this respect, Imam Ali ibnAbi. Taleb (as) is quoted to have said
“The first step of religion is to accept, understand and realize Him (Allah) and a perfection of understanding lies in conviction and the true way of conviction is to sincerely believe that there is no god but He…” 
Islamic doctrine is rooted in the pure belief in the Oneness of God, the Glorified, and that there is no one but Him, no one like Him, or opposite to Him, etc God is, also, above human qualities as these are characteristic of mortals. God is the Absolute, the Independent, and the Sufficient.
Believing in the Oneness of God, can according to Islamic doctrine, be understood from four distinct points:
- The Belief in the Oneness of God in Himself.
God, the Glorified, is One, Unique in Himself, not one of His creatures is like Him“And there is none like unto Him”.
It is a fact dictated by sound intellect and scientific reasoning. It is logically accepted that the self of the cause is different from the effect.
It is worth mentioning that the human intellect can only perceive that which has an image which Man invokes in his own mind. God, the Glorified, is far from being reducible to this, and that is why the mind cannot fathom His Essence.
How can Man perceive the Essence of the Divine self while he is unable to discover the truth about the material of the universe, though he can see and feel it and can describe it and know its effects. He, still, cannot know its essence, even if he can break it down into its component parts.
How could he perceive the Essence of the Great Creator, while the Qur’an presents this fact:
“…yet these (are the men) who (dare to) dispute about God, with the strength of His power (supreme)!” 
2.The Belief in the Oneness of God in His Attributes.
He alone has the most glorious attributes. He has complete absoluteness in knowledge, power, will, wisdom, independence, etc. He is above all faults, and no one is like Him in His attributes. It is logical that the attributes follow the self, and so the qualities of the sun are different from that of the dust. Likewise, God’s attributes are different from that of the creatures.
This is the meaning of God’s saying:
It clarifies that He, alone, possesses the praised attributes.
This is the meaning of God’s saying:
“Glory to thy Lord, the Lord of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what they ascribe (to Him)!”.
That means that God is above any fault the polytheists attribute to Him. The belief in the Oneness of God in His attributes cannot be comprehended except after stating the attributes which are truly God’s. They are called ‘the attributes of perfection’, like having power, knowledge, will, choice, life, eternity, perpetuity, and wisdom, etc. This entails denying whatever attributes that are not His, like that of imperfection and fault, the need for time land space, doing evil, incarnation, movement, having appendages like hands and legs, etc. These are called ‘the attributes of greatness’ or ‘the negative attributes.
3.The Belief in the Oneness of God in His Actions.
It is a self-evident truth that actions are expressions of the self and of attributes. As the hand can by no means act like the mind, due to the natural difference between the two in essence and attributes, and as the wind cannot act like electrical current, so no one can act like God, the Glorified.
The inventions of Man are merely a process of making good use of the natural laws set by God. It is done through the mind which is granted to Man by God. Man’s role is confined to arranging the particulars according to natural laws.
God alone can create, provide Man’s provisions, raise up from death, cause to die and resurrect. He can do whatever He wills, for He is the Lord Who can do anything.
None can, other than God , affect the creation. None can repeal God’s Will or do what He does.
4.The Belief in the Oneness of God in Worship
True belief in the Oneness of God is incomplete without worshipping God, faithfully. He is the Creator and the Owner of His creatures. He grants them His grace. He is, for such consideration, entitled to be worshipped. All divine messages have called Man to submit and yield to God alone.
The Most Exalted says:
“Verily, I am God (Allah): there is no god but I: So serve thou Me (only), and establish regular prayer for celebrating My praise”. 
He taught Man to say:
“Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek”.
Worship is the gratitude shown to the source of grace and blessing, and acknowledgement of His favour, and performance of the duties ordained by God. Simultaneously, it leaves its perfecting impact on the human spirit, by guiding the instinct of religiousness buried in the depths of the human soul to the right direction. Thus, Man does not go astray, or wind up in the grip of tyrants.
Being a servant to God propels Man, really, to break the shackles which servitude intensifies in Man. Moreover, being a servant to God means turning one’s face to Him, the source of grace, and beauty and rightness.
The soul yearns for such attributes and seeks to attain perfection and progresses towards them. They become the sublimest objective and the highest ideal of Man’s thought and actions. The Muslim knows with certitude that his Creator owns the most glorious attributes. He is the Just, Merciful, Wise, The Most Loving, Kind to His servants who sin, Truthful, etc.
Man works to reflect the colouring of these attributes on his life, and to build human society and relations on the basis of these attributes. Consequently, he objectifies justice, love, mercy and grace in his life.
Islamic rites of worship have, moreover, educational and reformatory effects on the life of the individual and the group.
O Lord! Make us firm in monotheism throughout our life.
O Lord! Polytheism, like monotheism, has many branches. Being saved from polytheism is not possible but by Your Grace; envelop us in Your Mercy and Your Grace.
O Lord! Keep us alive with monotheism, and put the light of monotheist in our heart in every single circumstance of our life!
Reflections on Surah Ikhlas #2
As we all know, God doesn’t need to prove his majesty by incarnating himself in a human form as the Christians believe. God is free from all deficiency and lacks. There are many people today who believe that God needs to prove who He is through material forms. It’s wrong. God does not manifest himself in material forms to prove his greatness and his majesty.
God is not a creation of His creations. God is free from all of our illusions, imaginations and fantasies about him. God has no appearance; no material place and He is not existing in time and space.
We must reflect on this chapter of the Qur’an, even if it is so short. This surah gives you a vision of who God really is. Many Muslims today read for example “Allahu Samad” and “Kufu’wan Ahad” without knowing what it means. This is of course a tragedy for the Muslim Ummah. Muslim Imams today are only urging their followers to read the Qur’an without understanding and reflection.
You should also know that one of the names of this Surah is “The Chapter of Sincerity”. Monotheism and Sincerity are connected. Today’s Muslims do not understand that Monotheism and Sincerity are connected. They think Tawhid is just something you say and that’s it. Monotheism is linked to honesty. One should be honest as a Muslim. Today we have too much dishonesty and Muslims are so far away from sincerity as possible.
God is unique in his oneness. A Muslim should always strive to embrace God’s “Akhlaq” on earth, such as love and mercy. We as humans will never become gods, because divinity belongs to God only and no other human will reach the divinity.
God is unique in all of his goodness that belongs to him solely. God is the one who opens our hearts to the path of light and God is the one who opens the door for the man to the highest dimensions of spirituality. Thanks to Prophet Muhammad (S), the best man and no man is better than Prophet Muhammad (S), and thanks to his Ahlulbayt (A), we as Shia Muslims, have the doors opened to the true understanding of the true Tawhid that the Prophet (S) and his Family (A) preached to the public spheres.
You as a Muslim have to automatically understand that God is unique in his oneness and deserves your gratitude. Look at the blessings that come from his uniqueness and his oneness, and you will understand that your gratitude will never be enough. When I sit with my Christian friends, it feels like they explain God in a way where God has to come down in a certain way so that we can understand God and who God really is by being a son, father or a holy Spirit, and Islam denies this concept altogether.
You should also know that this chapter will protect you from hypocrisy and polytheism. This chapter teaches you how to preserve one path and one face in life, and this chapter will teach you not to mix your heart with hypocrisy, dishonesty, and material dimensions that will make your personality corrupt.
So, bear in mind that God is one in everything he has attributed to himself. Also try to open up other hearts to God’s oneness by teaching them the way of God’s oneness by letting them to know that God chose the Prophet (S) and his Ahlulbayt (A) as the leaders of the world, and that we as Muslims must obey them and follow their path, so that we can understand who God really is through these personalities whom God has chosen and blessed over the worlds.
You should also know that God is The Eternal, and nothing comes before Him and after Him. We need God. God doesn’t need us. We need to learn everything God wants to learn, And when we face difficulties in all forms, we should turn to God and follow the footsteps of His Prophet (S) and his Family (A), so that we can reach the highest rank and level of spirituality!
There is no one equal to God. He doesn’t give birth to no one, and he himself is not born. God is no man and no man is God. God is the Creator and we are the Creations of God. We are limited, while God is unlimited. Our love is limited, while God’s love is unlimited. We must try to understand God from unlimited dimensions and visions and not from material and human relationships and illusions, because God can never fit into our fantasies or limitations that we ourselves create with our limited capabilities!
و السلام عليكم ورحمة الله و بركاته
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 Tafsir Razi, his commentary on Surah Al-Ikhlas
 Majma’-al-Bayan, vol. 10, p. 564.
 Al-Mizan, vol. 20, p. 546.
 Atyab-ul-Bayan, vol. 14, p. 259.
 Majma’-al-Bayan, vol. 10, p. 561 (and other commentary sources).
 Nur-uth-Thaqalayn, vol. 5, p. 699-715.
 Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1 Chapter Nesbat, tradition 3.
 Bihar-al-Anwar. vol. 3, p. 221, Tradition 12.
 Ibid. , p. 222.
 Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 3, p. 222.
 Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 3, p. 223.
 Majma’-al-Bayan, vol. 10, p. 565.
 Surah At-Tauba, No. 9, verse 30
 Surah An’am, No. 6, verse 100
 Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol, 3, p. 224, and Majma’-al-Bayan, vol. 10, p. 566.
 Nahj-ul-Balagha, Sermon 186 (Arabic version).
 Nahj-ul-Balagha, Sermon 1.
 Surah Ikhlas, No. 112, verse 4
 Surah Ra’d, No. 13, verse 13
 Surah A’raf, No. 7, verse 180
 Surah Fatiha, No. 1, verse 2
 Surah Saffat, No. 37, verse 180
 Surah Ta-Ha, No. 10, Verse 14
 Surah Fatiha, No. 1, Verse 5