REFLECTIONS ON THE CHAPTER OF THE SUNDERING 
In the Name of God, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful.
إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انْشَقَّتْ (1) وَأَذِنَتْ لِرَبِّهَا وَحُقَّتْ (2) وَإِذَا الْأَرْضُ مُدَّتْ (3) وَأَلْقَتْ مَا فِيهَا وَتَخَلَّتْ (4) وَأَذِنَتْ لِرَبِّهَا وَحُقَّتْ (5) يَا أَيُّهَا الْإِنْسَانُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَى رَبِّكَ كَدْحًا فَمُلَاقِيهِ (6) فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ (7) فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا (8) وَيَنْقَلِبُ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا (9) وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ وَرَاءَ ظَهْرِهِ (10) فَسَوْفَ يَدْعُو ثُبُورًا (11) وَيَصْلَى سَعِيرًا (12) إِنَّهُ كَانَ فِي أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا (13) إِنَّهُ ظَنَّ أَنْ لَنْ يَحُورَ (14) بَلَى إِنَّ رَبَّهُ كَانَ بِهِ بَصِيرًا (15) فَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالشَّفَقِ (16) وَاللَّيْلِ وَمَا وَسَقَ (17) وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا اتَّسَقَ (18) لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَنْ طَبَقٍ (19) فَمَا لَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ (20) وَإِذَا قُرِئَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقُرْآنُ لَا يَسْجُدُونَ (21) بَلِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُكَذِّبُونَ (22) وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يُوعُونَ (23) فَبَشِّرْهُمْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ (24) إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُونٍ (25)
1.When the sky is rent asunder, 2. And hearkens to (the Command of) its Lord, and it must needs (do so);- 3. And when the earth is flattened out, 4. And casts forth what is within it and becomes (clean) empty, 5. And hearkens to (the Command of) its Lord,- and it must needs (do so);- (then will come Home the full reality). 6. O thou man! Verily thou art ever toiling on towards thy Lord- painfully toiling,- but thou shalt meet Him. 7. Then he who is given his Record in his right hand, 8. Soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning, 9. And he will turn to his people, rejoicing! 10. But he who is given his Record behind his back,- 11. Soon will he cry for perdition, 12. And he will enter a Blazing Fire. 13. Truly, did he go about among his people, rejoicing! 14. Truly, did he think that he would not have to return (to Us)! 15. Nay, nay! for his Lord was (ever) watchful of him! 16. So I do call to witness the ruddy glow of Sunset; 17. The Night and its Homing; 18. And the Moon in her fullness: 19. Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage. 20. What then is the matter with them, that they believe not?- 21. And when the Qur´an is read to them, they fall not prostrate, 22. But on the contrary the Unbelievers reject (it). 23. But Allah has full knowledge of what they secrete (in their breasts) 24. So announce to them a Penalty Grievous, 25. Except to those who believe and work righteous deeds: For them is a Reward that will never fail.
This Surah, like many other Surahs of the last part of the Holy Qur’an, talks about the Resurrection. First, there are some references to the awful events of the time when this world ends and the New World begins.
Then, it speaks about the resurrection and The Reckoning of the good-doers and evildoers and their ultimate end. Further, it refers to the deeds and beliefs of the disbelievers which bring about God’s punishment on them. And then, after some oaths, it touches on the different stages man goes through during and after his life. Finally, it returns to speaking about the good and evil actions of man and his rewards or punishments on That Day.
The Virtue of Studying This Surah
There is a tradition from the Prophet (S) which says:
“He who studies Surah Inshiqaq Allah will make him safe from being given his Record from behind his back (on the reckoning Day)”.
There is a narration from Imam As-Sadiq, written in the book ‘Thawab-al-A’mal’, which says:
“He who recites those two Surahs: Infitar and Inshiqaq, and considers them present before his eyes in his obligatory and optional prayers, nothing will separate him from God. He will be in the continuous presence of God and God will be looking over him until all of the accounts he has with others are settled.”
A Hard Struggle Towards Absolute Perfection
As it was said in the description of the content of the Surah, at the beginning of the Surah it talks about the awful and amazing events which will happen at the end of this world.
It says: “When the Sky is rent asunder,”
(and the celestial bodies burst asunder and lose their order and regularity). An idea similar to that is mentioned at the beginning of Surah Infitar, No. 82, verses 1-2 where it says: “When the Sky is cleft asunder, When the planets are scattered”, and this is an announcement for the destruction and the end to this material world.
“And obeys its Lord, and it must;”
No one might suppose that the Sky, which is great and seemingly vast and limitless, would have the least resistance against this divine order, like an obedient person, resigns to the Order, perfectly.
The term “adhinat” (أَذِنَتْ) is derived from “uthun” (أذن) ‘ear’ meaning ‘to listen to’; and here, metaphorically means ‘to obey the Command’.
The term “huqqat” (حُقَّتْ) is based on “haqq” and means ‘fit, need, or deserve’.
How can the earth and the sky not obey when they are created things and they must necessarily obey their Creator since their very nature as created beings requires that they must hearken to the call of their Creator, and they not only did so from the beginning as Surah Fussilat, No. 41 verse 11 says: “…they said ‘we do come (together), in willing obedience’”, but they also obey God’s’ command for their dissolution.
Some have also said that the purpose of the term “huqqat” is that the fear of the Hereafter is so terrible that the Sky deserves to be cleft asunder. However, the first commentary seems more fitting.
“And when the Earth is flattened out”
Then it points to the state of the earth and says: “And when the Earth is flattened out”.
Many verses in the Qur’an say that mountains will be uprooted, totally, and left as plains; smooth and level, and the earth will be flattened and large enough for all human beings to gather on.
This is said in Surah ‘Ta-ha No. 20, verses 105-107: “They ask thee concerning the Mountains: say, ‘My Lord will uproot them and scatter them as dust; He will leave them as plains smooth and level; Nothing crooked or curved will thou see in their place”.
And the Great Judgment, where all human beings, from the beginning to the end, are gathered, needs such a large and level place.
Some commentators have said that on That Day God spreads the present earth, much larger than it is now, in order to make room enough for all of His creatures.
“And casts forth what is within it and becomes empty.”
The consensus of scholars say that the meaning of the verse is that the Earth will suddenly cast forth what it has within its soil, of dead bodies, who will then have a re-birth for the eternal life.
This is the same idea set forth in Surah Az-Zilzal, No. 99, verse 2: “And the Earth throws up her burdens (from within).”
And, it is also similar to what is said in Surah An-Nazi’at, No. 79, verses 13-14: “But it shall be only a single blast, When, behold, they shall be in the awakened state.”
Some commentators have said that besides human beings, mines and treasures, hidden within the soil, will erupt.
It is also probable that the verse refers to the idea that molten lava, within the earth, will be carried out by violent and terrible earthquakes which then covers the surface of the earth and makes it level. Thereafter, the interior of the earth will be empty and quiet.
All of the above three commentaries, combined, are also possible.
“And obeys its Lord, and it must.”
These events, which correlate with the submission of all creatures, indicate the destruction of the universe: the earth, the sky, treasures which, all-in-all, come to an end and open a way to a new stage of life; the Eternal life.
Moreover, as signs, they make it clear that God’s domain is over everything, especially the Resurrection.
Verily, man will be faced with the result of his actions; good or evil, when these events occur.
“O man! Surely you are ever toiling on towards your Lord; painfully toiling, until you meet Him.”
Then, addressing mankind, it tells them of the fate on their path: “O man! Surely you are ever toiling on towards your Lord; painfully toiling, until you meet Him.”
The term “kadh” (كدح) means ‘ toil ‘ and ‘labour’, or ‘striving hard’. In the commentaries of ‘Kashshaf ‘ and ‘Fakhr-i-Razi’ and also ‘Ruh-al-Amin’ the term has been meant as ‘a scratch on the skin of the body’. That is why it is used for the struggles which affect man’s spirit.
This verse points to a great principle throughout everyone’s life. It says that this life is perpetually saturated with pain and labour, when it is for obtaining the articles of this world, and even more so for the eternal happiness and for gaining Gods’s favour. This is the nature of this world. Even those who live a very good life are not at all free from pain and labour.
The term ‘meet’ used in this verse refers to either the meeting at the Gathering Place, in the Hereafter, before the throne of Allah’s Absolute Judgment for all, or meeting His Reward or Punishment, or meeting Him through one’s intuition, and the verse shows that the pain and the labour will continue until That Day. When it finishes, one meets his Lord after his death, with one’s pure and good deeds, of course.
man, in the sense of all human beings, and stressing on the humanity of the human, is addressed by the verse, and this tells us the fact that God has created the required faculties in man to pave the way from the beginning to the end.
The emphasis on the term ‘Lord’ points to another fact. That is, that this troublesome effort of life is a part of the Divine program for man’s development.
Verily, we are travellers, from nothing, who have entered the realm of existence and we are going to the Abode of Love with the hope that we shall meet Him.
This idea is mentioned in some other verses of the Qur’an.
For example, in Surah An-Najm, No. 53, verse 42 it says: “That to thy Lord is the final Goal”.
And also in Surah Fatir, No. 35, verse 18 it says: “…and the destination (of all) is to God.”
And there are also other verses, in the Qur’an, all of which denote that the permanent process of development for all creatures is unto God the Almighty.
“Then he who is given his Record in his right hand, Soon he will be reckoned with by an easy reckoning, And he will return unto his people in joy.”
But, here, men are divided into two groups, as it says:“Then he who is given his Record in his right hand, Soon he will be reckoned with by an easy reckoning, And he will return unto his people in joy.”
This group of people are those who act and use their gifts in the same way that Allah has guided man to do. All their efforts and endeavours are for the sake of Allah and their entire movements are always unto Allah.
There, they are given their Records in their right hand and that shows the purity of their deeds, the correctness of their faith, and their deliverance in the Hereafter that will bring them joy and happiness; an honour to all human beings gathered there.
When they stand in front of the Scale (for reckoning), that which is very just, Allah will grant them an easy reckoning: He will forgive them of their faults and, because of their strong faith and good acts, he will change their sins into good deeds.
Some commentators have said that the meaning of ‘an easy reckoning ‘ is an account which is taken easily and not with accuracy and severity; in which sins are forgiven and good deeds are given reward.
There is a tradition from the Prophet (S) which says:
“Allah takes the account easy of he who has three characteristics and lets him go into Heaven with His Mercy.”
“What are they?”
They asked, and he answered,
“To be generous to the person who deprived you; to join the one who ceased from you; and to forgive those who hurt you”.
This matter is also understood from some narrations that accuracy and severity with reckoning, in the Hereafter, depends on one’s wisdom and knowledge, as a narration from Imam Al-Baqir (as) says:
“In the Hereafter and on the Day of Judgment, God, the Almighty, will exact a detailed account from his servants, in exact proportion to the reason with which He has endowed them in the worldly life”. 
The opinions for the commentary about “ahl” are divided. Some commentators have said that the objective meaning is ‘one’s believing wife and children’ that only believers will obtain in Heaven. The very thing, that a person meets his beloved members, in Heaven, and is with them there, is a great blessing in itself.
Some other commentators have said that it means ‘the angels belonging to the believing servants in Heaven’. Others have said that “ahl” means the believing persons who were loved by one in this life and they were on the same level with him.
All interpretations can be combined.
A Surprising Narration!
It is narrated from Amir-al-Mu’mineen Ali (as) who commented about the verse: “When the Sky is rent asunder” and said: ”The skies will separate from the galaxy”.
This narration is meaningful and noteworthy. It is considered among the miracles of science. It opens a secret which none of the scientists of that time knew.
But, nowadays astronomers, with the help of their observations through their great and powerful telescopes, have proven that the universe is a collection of galaxies, each of which is in the form of many systems and stars, and that is why they are called ‘star cities’. The Milky Way, a known galaxy, is visible at night and is a great collection of these very systems and stars.
One side of it is so far from us that its stars seem to be only a massive white cloud, but actually it is a group of lights close together.
The other side of it, which is nearer to us, is formed by visible stars; the same stars which we see in the sky at night. Then, our solar system is a part of this galaxy; the Milky Way.
According to the above narration, Imam Ali (as) says that at the threshold of the Hereafter, the stars that we primarily see in the sky will separate from the galaxy and lose their order completely.
In those days, no one knew that the stars we see in the sky were really parts of the Milky Way, but only he whose heart was connected to the unseen world and whose knowledge was derived from the divine source could know.
This Life is Full of Pain and Labour
The term “kadih” (كَادِحٌ), used in the verse, denotes that every effort and endeavour is with pain and trouble. The verse addresses all individuals and states the fact that the nature of life, in this world at any stage, is full of toil and misery, bodily, mentally or both, combined, and no one is an exception.
There is a very meaningful tradition narrated from Imam Ali Ibn Al-Hussain (as) which says:
“There is no ease and comfort in the world for the people of this world. It is found only in Heaven and for the people of Heaven. Toil and labour are in this world and for the people of this world.
Each one of them who gets a share of it, has doubled the greed. And those who have more property and things of this world are more needful, because they need other people and some tools to keep and protect the things that they have accumulated. Then, there is no comfort in the wealth of this world.”
So Imam (as) adds at the end that: “Nay, the friends of God never bear pain in this world for this world, but they bear it in this world for the Next World.” 
Those Who Hold Their Record Behind Their Back!
In contrast to the aforementioned verses, which were about those who are given their Record in their right hand, these verses are about the unbelievers and how they are given their Records.
At first, it says: “But he who is given his Record behind his back, Soon he will cry for Perdition, And enter a Blazing Fire.”
The commentators have delivered different ideas about this verse which says :‘They are given their Records behind their back’, and those verses which say ‘Their Records are given to their left hand’.
Some commentators have said that their right hand is tied to their neck with chains, so that is why their Records are given to their left hand from their back and it is a sign of degradation and shame.
Some others have said that their hands are not free; they are tied behind their back like those of captives and, thus, they can only receive their Records in their left hand, behind their back.
Still others have said that by noting Surah An-Nisa. No.4, verse 47 which says: “…before We alter faces then turn them on their back…”,
it can be understood that the faces of this group of wicked ones have been turned to their back and they have to read their Records themselves; the Records are given to their left hand behind their back.
It is more agreeable to say that the doers of good take their Record happily in their right hand and call, with pride and boasting to others in the Hereafter: “Ah here! Read ye my Record!”. 
But, when the wicked are given their Record in their left hand, they will keep it behind their back shamefully in order for it not to be seen by others, but unfortunately it is of no use, because nothing is hidden there.
They cry for perdition, but it will be in vain and they will receive the command: “And enter a Blazing Fire.” That is, they will arrive at the blazing fire of Hell.
Then, the cause of this awful case is described, and it says: “Truly, he was (erstwhile) joyful among his people.”
It was a joy of pride, and the pride originated from neglect and being forgetful of Allah. His self-complacency and self-conceit, in his lower life, will now give way to weeping and misery.
It is clear that joy or happiness is not naturally blamed or forbidden, but a believer should be hopeful and happy of Allah’s Grace, and a believer should always be rejoicing and good tempered with others when he is interacting with them. The joy which is blameworthy, is the joy which makes people forgetful of God, and entangles them only in their lusts.
“Truly he thought that he would never return (to his Lord)!”
In fact, the true source of his misery and corrupted idea was his denial of the Resurrection, that which made him proud and exultant and, thus, he became drunk with lusts and far from the Reality; God. The denier of the truth went so far that he mocked the Mission of the prophets (as), and when he went to his people, he was happy with this mockery.
This very idea is mentioned in Surah Al-Mutaffifin, No. 83, verse 31: “And when they returned to their people they returned jesting ,”
and also in the story of the wealthy Qarun who was doubtful of Allah, some of his people told him “…Exult not, for Allah loveth not those who exult (in riches)”. 
The term “lanyahur” (لَنْ يَحُورَ) ‘he would never return’ is based on “haur” which originally means ‘go to and fro’ whether in deed or in thought.
The term “mihwar” (محور) ‘axis’, “muhawarah” (مُحَاوَرَة) ‘answers for answers, debate’, “hiwar” (حوار) ‘a loud voice in dialogue’, “tahayyur” (تحير) ‘confuse’, and “hawariyun” ‘companions of Jesus’ are from the same root.
But, on the whole, this word which has been used in this verse means ‘return’ and ‘resurrection’.
Meanwhile, this verse shows that the lack of belief in the Resurrection is the origin of carelessness, pride, and corruption.
In the last verse of this portion of the verses, for the negation of their false belief, it says: “Yes indeed! Surely his Lord was (ever) watchful of him”, and recorded all of man’s acts, totally, and kept the Record for the coming Reckoning Day.
The idea, in this verse, is an evidence for the Resurrection, as verse 6 was: “O man! Surely you are ever toiling on towards your Lord; painfully toiling, until you meet Him”.
Both of them emphasize on the term ‘Lord’, because the process of man’s development towards his Lord can never end with his death. The final goal is beyond the only life in this world.
God’s watchfulness over man’s actions and the record of the deeds are not done in vain. They are certainly primary to the final Judgment and, consequently, to the Reward and the punishment.
You Are Continuously Changing.
After the description of man’s development, stage by stage, unto his Lord that we had discussed in the former verses, we will see a conformation of the same fact, with more details, in the following verses.
The verses say: “But Nay! I swear by the glow of the sunset, and by the night, and that which it gathers together (in one herd), and the moon when it grows full, that you shall most certainly enter one stage after another.”
The word “la” in the term “fa-la-uqsimu” (فَلَا أُقْسِمُ) is expletive and is used for emphasis, here.
The term “shafaq” (شَّفَقِ), here, as Raqib cites in Mufradat, means ‘redness’ of the sky after sunset which mixes with the darkness of nightfall.
Fakhr-i-Razi believes that the term “shafaq” originally means ‘thinness’, and therefore, a very thin dress is called “shafaq” and “shafaqah” (شَفَقَة) is used in the case of one having a ‘thin’ heart. (But, Raqib’s statement seems to be more appropriate).
In any case, God swears by it to make everyone think about this beautiful natural phenomenon, because ‘sunset’ announces a deep revelation in the world, that is, the day ends and the night begins, and also, it is the time of the sunset prayer; ‘Maghrib’.
To swear by the night is for the reason that night is a hiding place for secrets and mysteries.
The term “wasaq” (وَسَقَ), conveying the meaning of ‘to gather together (in one herd)’, points to one of the great secrets of the night. At nightfall all the wandering flocks and herds come home. The men that had scattered abroad, for their livelihood, return home to rest and sleep. The night collects them in their homes.
This idea is also carried in Surah Ghafir, No. 40, verse 61 when it says:“It is Allah who has made the Night for you, that you may rest therein…”
The moon and its glorious silver light, especially when it is full at night, is one of God’s signs and that is why He swears by it.
It is interesting to note that these four parts point to the cases and varieties that continually occur in the created world: the sun sets, its redness appears in the sky, living creatures rush to their home, and the moon rises in full.
It should be noted that on the night before the fourteenth day of the month, the moon rises from the beginning of the night, by which these oaths are said, and that is a basis for the verse: “That you shall most certainly enter one stage after another”, which illustrates the different states in the life of man.
There are various commentaries for this sentence. Some of them are as follows:
- Man travels and ascends, stage by stage, towards the Absolute perfection. He strives hard; first in this world, then in the partition and then in Resurrection, with the different states.
- Man has different stages of development, from the time he is the sperm form, until death. They are considered about thirty-seven stages by some people.
- Man bears various opposites in his life: health and sickness, sadness and happiness, hardship and ease, war and peace.
- Man will face many different hard situations in the Hereafter until he receives the consequence of his reckoning; Heaven or Hell.
- In ancient times, people had many varieties of pleasant and unpleasant adventures; or that the unbelieving people among the Muslim community displayed various denials and rejections of Islam. This idea is said to be narrated from Imam As-Sadiq (as).
All the above commentaries are possible, of course, and the verse may refer to all of them together.
In any event, the occurrence of these states to man and the lack of constancy in his position, on the one hand, is an evidence that he is ‘a created thing’ and necessarily has a Creator, because every changeable thing is a creature and all creatures have a common Creator; and on the other hand, it is an evidence to the lack of immortality in this world. It is also a sign for man’s constant movement and development toward his Lord, to the Resurrection; as was mentioned in verse 6:“O man! Surely you are ever toiling on towards your Lord; painfully toiling, until you meet Him.”
Then, as a general consequence it inquires: “What then is the matter with them that they do not believe?”
How can they ignore the immense gifts and benefits they have from God? They have clear evidences and signs for theism, theology and Resurrection, both in outer nature like day and night, sun and moon, light and darkness, sunrise and sunset with its redness; and inner nature from the mother’s womb in the form of sperm; to other stages one after another until death, but they do not believe. Why do they not accept Allah’s grace instead of disputing about it?
Then it turns from the creation to the revelation and says: “And when the Qur’an is recited to them they do not fall prostrate.” *
The Holy Qur’an is so bright and clear that it is a good evidence for itself and that its content is from the Divine source.
‘Prostrate’, here, means ‘humble gratitude to Allah’, and ‘to fall prostrate’ which is the act of putting the forehead on the ground for the prayer, is one of the examples of this general sense. Perhaps for the same reason, as it is narrated, when the Prophet (S) recited these verses he fell prostrated.
“Nay, those who disbelieve reject (it).”
The verb form used in the Arabic text, which is usually applied in a continuous case, shows their constant rejection. That constancy was not because of the revelation being inadequate, but it was based on their blind imitation of their father’s behaviour and it was based on following their own interests and their lusts.
“And Allah knows best what they keep secret (in their breasts)”.
God is aware of their thoughts and aims, and, also, of the motives causing those constant rejections. Then, whatever more they keep secret, finally He will punish them.
The term “yu’un” (يُوعُون) is derived from “wi’a’ “ (وعاء) ‘container’. The very word is used in a statement narrated from Imam Ali (as) in Nahj-ul-Balagha which says: “Verily these hearts are containers. The best of them is that which has a better ability to preserve its contents and a bigger capacity to hold more”.
“So give them tiding of a painful punishment”
The term “bashir” (بَشِّرْ) is usually used for ‘announcing good news’ but, sometimes, it is used ironically. The believers are informed of the immense blessings of Heaven while blame is put on the unbelievers and causes them to be regretful and begrudging.
In the last verse of this Surah, the fate of those good-doers from among the believers is again mentioned as an exception where it says: “Except those who believe and work righteous deeds: for them is a reward unending.”
The term “mamnun” (مَمْنُون) is derived from “manan” (منن) which means both ‘cease’ and ‘decline’ and also ‘indebtedness’.
The word “manun” (مَنُون) ‘death’ is, also, based on it. All these senses may be understood from the term, in this verse, because, in spite of the blessings in this human world, which are diminishable and ever changing and often mixed with undesired consequences or indebtedness given by this person or that person, the blessings of that spiritual world are followed by no indebtedness, declension or undesired consequences.
This exception is apparently joined to the earlier descriptions, about the unbelievers in the former verses, in order to give a way to the disbelievers and to say that certainly that painful punishment will be removed from those who repent and believe and do good and they will given a Reward that will never fail.
The late ‘Tabarsi’ in ‘Majma’-al-Bayan’ has rendered the last verses of this Surah to mean ‘free-will’, since it is not praiseworthy for Allah, the Wisest, to blame those who do not fall prostrate and believe, when they are forced to.
And, when it says: “What then is the matter with them that they do not believe?”,And when the Qur’an is recited to them they do not fall prostrate”,
is a clear evidence for ‘free-will’. Again, blame for leaving the prostration is a reason for the fact that the disbelievers should not only follow the primary Principles of religion, but also should perform the secondary precepts of religion, as well.
O Lord! Show us mercy the day we stand before you.
O Lord! Let us always strive and struggle to reach the true path with the help of your mercy.
O Lord! We have obeyed Your Message, the Holy Qur’an, bestow on us the grace to act accordingly.
Peace and Blessings be upon Prophet Muhammad (saw) and his Family (as)
| Sayyid Abbas Sadr-‘Ameli and Amir Zabidi
 Nur-uth-Thaqalayn, vol. 5, p. 537.
 Khisal-i-Saduq, vol. 1, Chapter: ‘This World and the Next World’
 Surah Al-Haqqah, No. 69, verse 19
 Surah Al-Qasas. No. 28, verse 76
| REFLECTIONS ON THE CHAPTER OF THE SUNDERING